COMMUNICATION STUDIES

INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION

Communication has been given certain different definitions by different scholars depending on their different ways of interpretations. The definition below explains the different concepts of communication as a subject;

Gamble and Gamble {1999} see communication as the deliberate or accidental transfer of meaning. It occurs whenever someone observes or experiences behaviour and attributes meaning to that behaviour. They further explained that, it does not matter whether the observed behaviour is intentional or accidental, conscious or unconscious.

Hybels and Weaver II {1989} are of the view that communication is the process in which people share information, ideas and feelings.

Unoh {1991} on his part defines communication as an activity or process that entails mutual sharing or exchange of ideas, information, feelings, emotions and reactions.

Singha {1986} sees communication as the transfer of information from one place to another in a desired direction with an expectation to bring about desired results or effects.

From the several definitions of communication given above, it is reasonable to conclude that communication is the transfer of information from a source to a person, himself or another, with the expectation of receiving a desired response.

TYPES OF COMMUNICATION

~ Verbal Communication

The use of words to exchange information with others is known as verbal communication. As a result, it might incorporate both spoken and textual communication. Many people, however, use the term to refer to just oral communication. The choice of words you use, as well as how they are heard and interpreted, are all part of the verbal element of communication.

The time period verbal communique regularly evokes the idea of spoken communique, however written communique is likewise a part of verbal communique. Reading this e book you are interpreting the authors’ written verbal verbal exchange with the intention to examine extra about verbal exchange. Let’s discover the diverse additives of our definition of verbal communique and look at how it capabilities in our lives.

Verbal exchange is about language, both written and spoken. In popular, verbal communication refers to our use of words at the same time as nonverbal verbal exchange refers to communication that occurs thru method aside from phrases, which includes body language, gestures, and silence. Both verbal and nonverbal communication can be spoken and written. Many people mistakenly expect that verbal conversation refers simplest to spoken verbal exchange. However, you will learn that this isn’t always the case. Let’s say you inform a friend a joke and she laughs in response. Is the laughter verbal or nonverbal communication? Why? As laughter isn’t always a phrase we would don’t forget this vocal act as a shape of nonverbal communique. For simplification, the container below highlights the varieties of communique that fall into the various classes. You can locate many definitions of verbal communication in our literature, but for this article, we define Verbal Communication as an agreed-upon and rule-governed gadget of symbols used to share meaning.

~ Non-verbal Communication

Nonverbal communication (NVC) is the transmission of messages or signals thru a nonverbal platform which include eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, posture, and body language. It includes the use of social cues, kinesics, distance (proxemics) and bodily environments/look, of voice (paralanguage) and of touch (haptics).[1] It can also include using time (chronemics) and eye contact and the moves of searching at the same time as talking and listening, frequency of glances, styles of fixation, pupil dilation, and blink price (oculesics).

Just as speech incorporates nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, which include voice satisfactory, fee, pitch, loudness, and speakme fashion, in addition to prosodic functions including rhythm, intonation, and pressure, so written texts have nonverbal elements including handwriting style, spatial association of words, or the bodily layout of a page. However, plenty of the observe of nonverbal conversation has targeted on interplay among people,[7] wherein it can be labeled into 3 most important areas: environmental conditions wherein verbal exchange takes area, bodily traits of the communicators, and behaviors of communicators throughout interplay.

Nonverbal conversation includes the aware and subconscious strategies of encoding and decoding.

ELEMENTS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS

When one is communicating with another, there are various elements that should be considered in the process of the communication, they are listed and explained below;

✓Senders:

The sender is likewise defined as the source of the message, concept or feeling in a communique stumble upon. The supply produces the message. It starts when the source is having a notion or concept and puts the message into a form in a system known as encoding. The source is the speaker in a speech state of affairs. He originates the message.

Dominick (2011) see encoding as the ones sports that a supply is going through to translate thoughts and thoughts into a form that can be perceived via the senses. Encoding can take vicinity extra than once in a communication state of affairs. The supply is the author of the message. The supply may be someone or a set of human beings with a motive for accomplishing conversation.

 

✓Receivers:

The receiver in a communication come upon refers to the recipient of the message. The receiver could be a unmarried individual or organisation, institution or maybe a large anonymous series of those who are the ultimate audience for the message. The receiver is the decoder of the message, this is, the only who includes activities that translate physical messages right into a shape that has eventual that means for the receiver. As you’re studying this article, you are the decoder. Also notice that relying on the placing of the verbal exchange, the receiver can be inside the supply’s instant presence or they can be separated with the aid of both area and time.

✓ Message:

Messages are phrases, sounds, moves and gestures that humans bypass throughout or share for the duration of communique. The message is the translation of ideas into symbolic code. It is the real physical products that the sender (source) passes to the receiver. As Hybel’s and Weaver II point out, messages can best be shared if they may be represented through symbols. A symbol is a word, sound, movement or gesture that arbitrarily refers to an item. Symbols serve a referential function due to the fact they refer or factor to items consisting of feelings,  thoughts, moods,  attitudes and beliefs as well as extra tangible items such as peoples, movements, events and bodily items. A regular symbol machine is the alphabet. A aggregate of these letters form words and terms that also acts as symbols, representing a sound, word or idea.

✓Channels:

Channels are the ones methods the message travels to the receiver. A message moves from one region to any other, from one man or woman to every other by journeying thru a medium or channel. In face-to-face conversation the channels are sound and sight. The message is carried via sound waves during speech and thru light waves for visible messages. Touch can also be a channel for sending messages. This is typified in the braille for the blind. In non face-to-face conversation, channels encompass writing, telephoning as well as radio, tv, statistics, newspapers, magazine for mass media. In mediated communique including radio and TV the channels are airwaves, soundwave, twisted copper cables, glass fibres, mild waves and cables.

✓ Feedback:

.Feedback at the responses made by the receiver as a result of his or her interpretation of the message from the source or the meaning assigned to a message is feedback. The message from the receiver to the source is feedback. Hear the role of source and receiver is exchanged as the source becomes the receiver and the receiver, the source. Feedback allows the source and the receiver to determine whether there has been appropriate meaning sharing that is whether the source or receiver has received the message the way it was intended.

 

Feedback varies depending on the setting of communication. In a face-to-face communication, feedback is instantaneous or immediate while in non face-to-face communication, feedback is delayed. Instantaneous or immediate feedback occurs when the reaction of the receiver is directly noticed by the source. Delayed feedback on the other hand does not occur as soon as what obtained with immediate feedback. For example, when one reacts to a newspaper publication, it usually takes time for that reaction to get to the source of that information.

 

Feedback could also be positive or negative. Positive feedback is such that encourages communication to continue between the source and receiver why negative feedback attempts to change communication to terminate it. Feedback is the process that a receiver uses to communicate to the source his or her understanding of message, reactions to it and any effects it may have had on him or her. It is the way the listener informs the listener could be sent verbally or non-verbally.

✓ Noise:

Noise is whatever that interferes with the transport of the message. Now it continues a message from being understood or accurately interpreted. Noise is defined as a few form of interference coming from the surroundings that distracts from verbal exchange. They can be competing sounds that make it hard for the receiver to pay attention or different distractions from the environments which include warmness. It can come from in the communicator within the shape of daydreaming or frightened problems. It happens among senders and receivers, Hybels and Weaver II classifying noise into 3: internal noise, outside noise, and semantic noise. Internal noise is that which takes place inside the minds of the centres or receivers. The senders or receivers may be thinking or feeling about something aside from this is the message in the ongoing communication. Internal noise can also occur while a receiver deliberately blocks out what the source is announcing.

The second is external noise. This isn’t always from the surroundings that kills the messages from being heard or understood. It will be from sounds from the surroundings or an uncomfortable surrounding where one unearths it hard to concentrate at the verbal exchange. Hybels and Weaver II describe semantic noise as arising from communicator’s emotional reaction to words. Semantic noise in his view happens when people have unique meanings for special phrases as phrases. He also categorized noise as mechanical or environmental. Mechanical noise is related to noise from machines used to assist communique e.g a static-stuffed radio a pixelated image in a TV set it’s miles environmental noise equate external noise in hybels and Weaver my class. They are commonly out of the communicators control.

✓ Context:

Communication constantly take vicinity in a context or setting. The context impacts how they speak or exchanges messages. Its impacts our behaviour. The context may be considered in several methods. For some people context is the climate of fear of scenario; for others context is the bodily location wherein communication occurs. For others nevertheless, context involves everything within the surrounding, physical – in which they communicate us are bodily interacting mental elements that influence the communicators state of thoughts. Context also includes the formality of the state of affairs, the level of privateness, and the degree to which a situation is emotionally charged. Context has types and levels. Our attention right here will be on the tiers of context.

CONTEXT OF COMMUNICATION

1. Intra-Personal Communication:

This is the manner of the usage of messages to generate meaning within the self. It is communication that occurs inside your very own thoughts. This form of communication happens earlier than and in the course of other varieties of verbal exchange. For instance, if anyone requested you to do something you do no longer want to do, before you be given or decline you watched over the options on your thoughts because intrapersonal communication is focused inside the self, the person is the most effective sender and receiver, the message are the thoughts and feelings channel is the brain and remarks is what is thought again. Intrapersonal verbal exchange happens all through such sports like fixing problems internally, solving internal struggle, planning for the future and evaluating your self and your courting with others. Communication within this context which includes best the self is visible as the basis for all other conversation.

2. Inter-Personal Communication:

Here, messages are used to generate which means among at the least two or extra people in a scenario that allows mutual opportunities for both talking and listening. It is used to remedy problems, to clear up conflicts, to percentage records, to enhance the notion of 1’s self, to meet social wishes along with they was once lengthy or to be loved. All the elements of the communique method are to be had. Those interacting function senders and receivers, the content in their discussion is the message which can be verbal or non-verbal the channels are in general sight and sound; remarks is plentiful whilst distractions are restricted. Moreover, the setting for interpersonal verbal exchange is formal. Interpersonal communique is divided into two subsets; dyadic communique and small institution conversation. Dyadic communique is two-individual conversation. Examples are; interview with an employer or trainer, discussion with parents, spouse or infant, interaction amongst strangers, buddies and buddies. Small group conversation alternatively happens whilst messages are used to generate that means in a small institution of humans consisting of family, paintings agencies spiritual businesses and take a look at companies. The channels are sight and sound and their utmost possibility for comments. Noise is gift do minimal and this conversation takes region in casual and comfortable settings.

3. Public Communication:

This context involves the process of generating meanings in a situation in which a single supply transits a message to a number of receivers who deliver non-verbal and from time to time question-and-answer comments. Here, the supply commonly adapts the message to the target market in order to reap maximum know-how. Public communique is otherwise called public speakme. It is formal and the message is rather based; the channels are still with interpersonal context or do they’re exaggerated to house the large target audience-the voice of the source are louder and the gestures expansive. And public verbal exchange the possibility for comments is minimum or do the target market typically have opportunity to invite questions on the give up of the speech however not whilst the speech is on. Public verbal exchange is used to inform, convince, entertain, introduce announce, welcome or pay tribute.

4. Mass Communication:

In mass communication, messages are generated in a mediated system between the supply and a large range of receivers.

This context has several distinguishing characteristics namely; it’s far capable of reaching concurrently tens of lots even tens of millions of those who the source does not recognise in my opinion; it relies on technological devices, intermediate transmitters to disseminate messages broadly and rapidly to scattered normally heterogeneous audiences who’re nameless to each other.

Other characteristics are that messages and mass communication and public; the messages come from a proper enterprise; and mass communication messages are managed by means of many gatekeepers-folks that can exercise control over the messages that we journey through the mass medium to attain the general public who prevent lastly feedback is restrained and delayed than in different contexts of conversation. Mass communication are used for information, interpretation of troubles time table-putting, socialization, enjoyment, persuasion et.c.

Origins of Communication

It is a difficult mission to mention exactly whilst conversation started out. However, as Wilson has argued it in all likelihood started out when man changed into created by means of God. Man became created on the 6th Day after God has created all other creatures. God stated; let us make guy in our own photograph. Meanwhile he had known as on lights and different creatures to be.

Although scholars are still looking, and theories are being evolved, the origin of verbal exchange is still an unanswered query. However, if we’re to treat language and verbal exchange has the equal, then we can meet several slants of History. But due to the fact language is basically believed to be God’s divine present to man, we will see communiqué in that mild.

Basically, conversation is said to be a hobby which seeks to inform, educate and entertain. We can consequently think about foundation of sports that we are accomplished to educate, tell and entertain. In conventional African societies, some of the activities that had been at first achieved to entertain, metamorphosed into what’s normally called conventional communication, and therefore now serve no longer handiest entertainment however additionally schooling and information purposes.

Traditional entertainment consisting of track, dance, masquerade, pageant – have their roots in ritual worship, exercise and magic. It all started out when man perceive that his surroundings turned into adverse and that it prevented him from penetrating or knowing the secrets and techniques of nature. He later felt that he may want to reap his dreams for steady waft of meals and victory over his adversaries. This he will do by way of dancing and performing a shape of rites. Africans normally have robust attachment to the dead or spirit international and that they trust that they may win the favour of the ancestors, believed to be alive in spirit to see mortals. To win this type of favour, they trust ritual become essential simply as worship of the forefathers of ancestors was. They believed that ancestors or four beers or the spirit may be persuaded thru rites and rituals.

From ritual, early humans commenced to impose phantasm of fact and become supposed to serve as means of resolving the struggle they’d with the surroundings, instance; troubles about rainfall and harvest safety towards wild animals and disorder, etc. Step by step commenced to serve enjoyment reason. Dance on the shrine have become enacted throughout annual gala’s to entertain people. Experiences with animals or sport through hunters started out to be recreated within the village rectangular for humans to look and be entertained and so forth. As the society developed and human beings with it, medical thinking started out to be delivered into ritual practices and rights have become in the end idealised. As rites and rituals became modified and altered it became feasible to isolate meats and which grew round rituals. This rituals themselves have become acted out as conventional drama masquerade overall performance or they became used at some point of fairs.

Festivals have been instituted to mark importance events, throughout which drama, masquerade presentations, dances and music among others have been displayed. Since those activities had to be two younger generations, fairs and different performances have become a sort of history e book, via which emotions, thoughts, views, tales might be shared. In the absence of a gadget of writing, this overall performance is having become manner of preserving the history of people.

Today, scholars see conventional painting, music, dance, poetry, drama,  gestures, symbols, masquerades, gala’s, storytelling, costumes and make-up as approach of communication in traditional African societies.

THE SOURCE VARIABLES

Each participant inside the communiqué encounters results and is laid low with the opposite humans worried. Moreover the supply and the receiver and a few encounters are obituary as human beings play sort of roles as they continuously ship and get hold of messages. Those notwithstanding, It is pertinent to isolation variables that operates when we decide the attributes of a communicator. Whether they are supply or receivers, the primary start by means of accessing the source variables are; credibility homophily- heterophylly and power.

 

• Credibility:

 Competence, Character, Composure, Sociability, and Extroversion are some of the dimensions.

Competence: The source who wishes to enlighten or persuade the audience must be regarded as knowledgeable. Being knowledgable about a subject is what competence entails. A communicator’s competency rating is boosted by the source’s level of education, access to current and irrelevant information, and direct expertise with the issue under discussion.

Character: This refers to the speaker’s apparent (trustworthiness). Speakers/Communicators must guarantee that they are always and obviously honest in their transactions. Anything to the contrary degrades the receiver’s perspective or the nature of the source.

Composure: The capacity to withstand tensions and stress during communication is known as composure. Fidgeting, shuffled papers, non-fluencies, and other behaviors show a lack of composure.

Sociability: The capacity to portray likeability to the receivers is referred to as sociability. People who give us the impression that they like and respect us, cooperate with us in difficult situations, and are pleasant and friendly are signs of sociability.

Extroversion: is the capacity to easily engage in social interactions. Receivers are recent talkative who take over conversations and introverts who make communication tedious and effortful. Care must be taken to do this in moderation. An extroverted speaker keeps the audience’s attention and is generally engaging.

• Homophily-Heterophylly:

Homophily refers to how closely two people interact in terms of specific characteristics. Demographic traits such as age, education, and socioeconomic level, as well as attitudes, beliefs, and values, can all contribute to homophily.

Heterophylly, on the other hand, refers to a person’s degree of small dissimilarity. A perceptive communicator must identify whether people are similar or dissimilar based on certain characteristics. The source and receiver’s homophily-heterophylly relationship influences their communication transactions in two ways: it decides who will communicate with whom and how successful the communication will be. People of similar social rank who live or work together will interact more. The way we think about homophily-heterophylly can influence how we think about the source’s reliability. On the other dimension of source trustworthiness, those who are homophilous will be viewed more positively. As a result, the source need input from the receiver in order to better grasp the receiver’s linguistic patterns, beliefs, norms, and behavior, as well as to build empathy.

• Power:

Power, like homophily and credibility, is a perceived phenomenon. A source contributes some personal resources into the communication circumstance, which the recipient may perceive as power factors. Personal traits such as wealth, prestige, skill, information, and physical power are examples of these resources. Specific communication patterns can be predicted when the receiver indicates that the source has some kind of power. In a communication encounter, the recipient has specific physical, psychological, and social requirements. The power to operate in a communication situation is motivated by the source’s ability to meet the needs of the receiver.

The motivation for allowing people to exercise control overule is to satisfy requirements that we want to be satisfied by the source of communication.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Receptive Communication 

All of the methods we use to obtain information are referred to as receptive communication. It is, in essence, the communication decoding process. The act of communication is represented by decoding, which is the receiver’s internal processing of a message and the attribution of meaning to the source’s behavior. To put it another way, it’s the ability to decipher nonverbal clues such as facial expressions, body language, and other nonverbal cues.

Receptive Skills

The basic receptive skills of communication are; reading and listening. They are therfore, discussed below;

Reading: 

Reading and listening are the two methods for measuring the decoding of messages during communication. Reading can simply be defined as the act of looking at and comprehending written or printed words or symbols. Reading is the act of responding to written material. Rather than simply glancing at text, it is a positive, attentive, and interpretative response. Reading takes on many forms depending on the purpose for which it is done. Reading is the process of decoding information or messages encoded in traditional graphic symbols that both the encoder and decoder can understand. The act of deciphering printed symbols and words is known as reading. It is a fundamental educational tool as well as one of the most significant life skills. We learn new words, get essential knowledge, get support for our new views, increase our personal enjoyment, and widen our interests by reading. The ability to reach distinguishes humans from other animals and aids in the development of pride and self-assurance. Books, newspapers, magazines, mail, street signs, traffic directions, adverts on billboards, package labels, and wordings in television commercials are only a few examples.

Reading Objectives:

Reading serves a variety of purposes, one of which is to provide information. Reading is a never-ending source of inspiration and enjoyment. Many people read books and other materials to learn more about certain topics of interest, such as current events, history, painting flowers, and so on. The more information one obtains from reading, the better possibility one has of comprehending and communicating effectively with others.

Reading can also serve as a form of entertainment. For persons who read easily, the world of books provides limitless hours of pleasurable and valuable enjoyment. Reading for pleasure can provide insight into other people’s behaviour. It takes readers on a journey to undiscovered regions of the globe and allows them to share their own personal experiences with people from all throughout history.

Steps in Reading;

The first step in reading one’s perspective is to write it down. This entails deciphering the meaning and pronouncing printed symbols. Comprehension is the next step. The ability to comprehend the meaning of what is red is referred to as comprehension. It all comes down to the capacity to recognize how words are used and how they relate to one another. If they can effortlessly relate words to one another and assign accurate meaning to them, they will understand what they read. Recognizing and comprehending ideas and relevant information are also part of comprehension.

Another step to take while reading is to react, which can take many different forms. As they read, readers may experience feelings of agreement, uncertainty, amusement, or sadness. They may dismiss what they’re reading as unrealistic or uncertain. The reaction to the writer’s notion has an impact on the readers’ attitudes, sentiments, and comprehension. The feedback from the two-way connection between the reader and the author is called reaction. The next stage in reading is to apply what you’ve learned. The information in the reading materials fuses with the reader’s previous experiences and right understandings bring new insights, disinterest, or assistance in solving an issue. Reading me can transform a person’s perspective on life or point them in the right direction to solve an issue.

Listening:

Receiving, generating meaning from, and responding to spoken or nonverbal stimuli is the process of listening. It’s an important communication skill. It entails comprehending, recalling, assessing, and responding. You can either be an active or passive listener. Attending, Understanding, Retention, Evaluating, Listening to Biased Information, Propaganda, and Rumour are the processes involved in listening.

Attending:

 

Attending is the perceptual process of focusing on and selecting specific stimuli that reach the senses. We pay attention to a lot of information that fascinates us and fits our bodily and psychological demands.

Techniques for focusing attention:

Prepare yourself physically and mentally to listen. Creating a listening-friendly physical environment as well as adopting a listening posture will improve listening. This could entail turning down the volume on a loud piece of music or going closer to the speaker for direct eye contact.

Shift your focus from speaker to listener. It may be tough to remain on as a listener because communication is an interchange process in which the source and receiver are constantly shifting roles. A conscious effort to avoid talking and interrupting the speaker, on the other hand, will improve effective listening.

Before you react, listen to what the other person has to say. Do not be distracted from listening by the speaker’s speech mannerisms or other behaviors, as this may cause you to miss important information. Learn to pay attention to what the speaker is saying without interrupting them.

Keep an eye out for nonverbal cues. Nonverbal clues from the speaker can assist a listener in accurately interpreting communications; tone of voice, body language, and facial expression can all be used to examine all the meanings behind and expression.

Understanding:

Understanding is the process of accurately decoding a communication to reflect the speaker’s intended meaning. Effective listening would be harmed if communications were delivered in words that were not in our February vocabulary. Comprehension is the ability to comprehend and understand spoken words, and understanding is synonymous with comprehension.

Empathy is one of the factors that can help us improve our understanding when we listen. Empathy is defined as intellectually identifying with or experiencing the feelings and attitudes of others in a vicarious manner. Empathy entails putting one’s own sentiments or attitudes toward another aside. Another helpful component that can boost our comprehension is questioning.The question is a remark intended to elicit further information or to provide clarification for previously acquired information. Another key aspect of comprehension is paraphrase. This entails expressing your thoughts or feelings about a message into words. It’s possible that people may concentrate on the message’s content and feelings.

Retention:

Retention refers to the ability to remember information and retrieve it when needed. Remembering can be improved by having listeners repeat what they hear three or four times. This can help the information be stored in the long-term memory. By conveying the stored information to the long-term memory, repetition provides reinforcement. However, if this is not done, information will only stay in the short-term memory for 20 seconds before being forgotten.Constructing mnemonics is another significant component that aids retention. Any artificial technique used to improve memory is referred to as a mnemonic device. Constructing mnemonics assists students in storing and recalling knowledge and forms. Taking notes is another effective way to keep track of information. It comes in handy when giving a lecture. It gives written records that we may refer to at any time, as well as allowing us to participate actively in the listening process. Notes could be in the form of a bulleted list of essential points or a short summary of the entire subject. Brief summaries of what the speaker said, as well as the overarching thoughts and important elements of the message, make up good notes.

Evaluating:

The term “evaluation” refers to the process of determining the worth of our praise estimates. This is the step in which the listener evaluates what has been communicated. During compelling talks, critical analysis is very useful. By thoroughly analyzing the message, the small hair must decide its truthfulness. By doing so, you can determine whether the messages correspond to your core values or areas of interest. The first level of critical listening is to distinguish between fact and noise. Interference is made by the speaker and is based on facts or observations. Facts are statements that can be verified or proven, whereas interference is made by the speaker and is based on facts or observations. S examine the facts to see if they are accurate. The third step is to see if the interference is real. Asking questions like, “What facts are supposed to be interference?” “Is this information actually Central to the interference?” “Are there any other facts or information that contradict this interference?” This would reveal whether the interference is real or not.

Listening to Biased Information:

Bias is the tendency to unfairly favor one person, group, thing, or point of view over another. It could be a personal perspective or something more public, such as a news item that only delivers facts that support one point of view. Propaganda and rumours can both be sources of skewed information.

Propaganda:

Propaganda is a type of communication that aims to persuade the audience by only presenting one side of an argument. It is data from a biased or deceptive country that is used to promote a political cause or point of view. Propaganda is not objective and is largely intended to affect an audience and agents by selectively giving facts in order to create a specific synthesis or perspective. It also employs loaded language or loaded messaging to elicit an emotional reaction rather than a rational response to knowledge.

Rumour:

This is knowledge or a story that has been passed down from one person to the next but has not been verified as true or has no source. It’s a tall tale about events that circulates from person to person and is about an object. Pipedream rumours, which reflect public wants and desired outcomes, are one of three categories of rumours. Another type is dread rumours; does this indicate apprehension about our outcomes, such as an impending surprise attack by enemies? Wedge driving rumours are the third category; they are rumours intended to erode group allegiance or individual relationships. Critical listening develops the ability to spot skewed information.

Expressive Communication 

The capacity to communicate utilizing both verbal and nonverbal cues such as gestures and facial expression is referred to as expressive communication. Expressive communication is assisted not just by vocal mechanisms that produce activities such as speaking and muscle systems that produce acts such as writing, but also by nonverbal cues such as appearance, motions, and adornments in the surroundings. We’ll look at speaking and writing;

Writing:

Writing is a form of human communication in which marks and symbols are inscribed or recorded on a surface to express language and emotion. It’s fair to call it the visual equivalent of speech. Writing is usually used as a supplement to speech or spoken language in most languages. Writing is not a language, but rather a type of technology that evolved alongside human society. Within a language system, writing uses many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary, syntax, and semantics, but with the addition of a sign or symbol system. The product of writing is known as text, and the person who receives it is known as a reader. Publications, storytelling, correspondence, and keeping a diary are all reasons for writing. Writing has aided in the preservation of history, the dissemination of knowledge through the media, and the construction of legal systems. It is also a significant means of communication.

When writing, the writer has more time to review words, phrases, and sentences, as well as check for grammatical errors. Because the writer knows the reader can go over the content, he can deal with more challenging Concepts. There is no direct relationship between the writer and the reader.

Speaking:

The word refers to speaking with a single voice. It entails pronouncing words aloud. Speech refers to the act of speaking. Speech is often regarded as a fundamental human communication skill, with scholars claiming that it marks the start of human communication. Speech is intended to be comprehended by the listener as soon as they hear it. It has an ability to offer meaning that the writer lacks. The speaker can employ dramatic pauses, slow down, or speed up to emphasize key words. A speech that may appear dull on paper might be enthralling to listen to because the speaker has the opportunity to make effective use of his or her voice.

 

Speaking allows us to ask questions, respond to input from listeners, and rephrase our messages if we are misunderstood. We can make what we say more meaningful than what we write. During presentations, we can enphasize key words, create dramatic pauses, and slow down or hurry up the pace. We have the ability to use speech in new ways. 

CONTRASTING SPEECH FROM WRITING

Both talks and writing have their own unique characteristics, and both are necessary for human survival. Writing and speaking enable us to fulfill our requirements for enjoyment, information, investigation, explanation, interpretation, pointing and demonstrating, personal freedom, self-realization, and creative activity.

The following points, however, distinguish speech from writing:

Speeches feature more meandering and loosely structured phrases and make advantage of space for simpler words. Speech users have a higher rate of repetition and are more relaxed. Speech generates visual and auditory representations in the form of sound and movement. Speaking is essentially a coordination of both I and the year with British formation and articulation organs. Speaking is ephemeral and impermanent.

In contrary, Writing employs both tough and simple words, as well as stringent structural requirements. In writing, there is less repetition and the writing is more formal. Write him a sign that appears to the eyes in the shape of marks on a surface. In connection to thinking, writing is a coordination of eye and hand. Writing preserves ideas, histories, and other information in a somewhat permanent manner.

PICTORIAL COMMUNICATION

The use of visuals primarily as messages is known as pictorial communication. For a long time, people have been fascinated by photographs. A picture is created by establishing a relationship between two spaces such that the first’s spatial qualities are reserved in the second, which is the image. Every day, we see Victoria emblems all over the place. Traffic signs are more prominent and have more pictures than other pictorial symbols, yet they all transmit a message visually. They are indicators that denote where the departure and arrival gates are located at airports; public restrooms usually have a picture on the door to indicate which one you should use, and so on. Images can be utilized to aid in a person’s comprehension of what is being stated as well as to allow them to communicate themselves.

Visual communication is a method of graphically communicating ideas in a way that is both efficient and effective in conveying meaning. It’s an important part of any content marketing plan.

This is due to the fact that pictures can help elicit emotions in your audience, provide greater instances for your argument, and much more.

“People only remember 10% of what they hear and 20% of what they read,” writes the Creatly blog. They, on the other hand, remember about 80% of what they observe.” When talking with coworkers, managers, or other departments, using visual aids might assist them remember the information. Not only that, but the impact on those teams is increased because you all have a single shared base picture to operate from. This encourages everyone to participate in the project and perhaps contribute fresh and inventive ideas. So, the next time you’re searching for a technique to make sure everyone on a new project is on the same page, try visual communication. It can assist in keeping everyone on the same page and working toward the same objectives.

Visual communication can take complex concepts and convey them in a way that anyone can grasp, regardless of their location, language, or work environment. For example, having someone give sales figures to you can make you yawn. When that same data is broadcast on a scoreboard, however, it transforms from something that individuals must evaluate to something that is immediately understandable.

Our might seem like an unusual benefit to include in this list because beauty isn’t something that can be measured. It is, nevertheless, something that humans have recognized since before recorded history. Even our forefathers fashioned symmetrical hand axes. With the symmetry providing little practical value, the only conclusion is that people appreciate beautiful things. Visual communication that is designed with care can not only aid in communication, but it can also aid in learning.

         TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION

Traditional communication is defined as a communication which involves all the social conventions and practices, modes of and social organizations whose chief concerns may not be with communication but with other activities. Traditional communication is perhaps the most important way by which ruralities communicate among themselves and in effect with others. In rural society, this is for a large majority, the only means of getting information about event outside.


  Traditional media of communication is a complex system of communication which pervades all aspects of rural and urban life in Africa. It is complex in the sense that, it is not only one system but a network of other systems which operate at various levels of society. In reality, it is simple in its operation and it depends on trust for its credibility.


The traditional media of communication and its effectiveness in rural development depends on the mode of their communication. The people in rural settlement make use of instrumental {e.g idiophones, aerophone, stratify, iconographic, extra-mundane, visual and institutional as their effective tools of communication. Here, the instrumental mode of traditional communication consist of aerophones idiophones, membranephones symbolography.

TAXONOMY OF TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION

There are numerous traditional forms of communication in Nigeria’s old Calabar province. These are the various forms which the fabled town crier employs in his different communication roles.

They can be broadly divided into eleven classes, namely:

(i) Idiophones

(ii) Membranophones

(iii) Aerophone

(iv) Symbolography

(v) Signals

(vi) Signs

(vii) Objectifies

(viii) Colour Schemes

(ix) Music

(x) Extra-mundane communication

(xi) Symbolic displays


IDIOPHONES

These are self-sounding instruments or technical wares which produce sound without the addition or use of an intermediary medium. The sound or message emanates from the materials from which the instruments are made and they could be shaken, scratched, struck, pricked (pulled) or pressed with the feet.

 

 In this group we have the gong, woodlock, wooden drum, bell and rattle.

MEMBRANOPHONES

These are media on which sound is produced through the vibration of membranes. They include all varieties of skin or leather drum. These drums are beaten or struck with well-carved sticks. Among the various Nigerian groups, skin drums of various sizes and shapes abound. Perhaps the most popular, because it is the most exposed and intricate in its craftsmanship, is the Yoruba talking drum, locally called ‘dundun’.

AEROPHONES

These are media which produce sound as a result of the vibration of a column of air. They comprise media of the flute family, whistle reed pipes, horns and trumpets, Symbolography: This simply means symbolic writing or representation. Communication takes place when an encoder uses graphic representations to convey a message which is understood within the context of a known social event and an accompanying verbal message. It is a descriptive representational device for conveying meaning.


There are three main kinds of symbolography used among the Cross River people (the Efik-Ibibio-Igbo) namely:


(a) the fresh unfolding frond of the palm tree usually with a greenish yellow colour. It is tied and shaped in different ways to convey different meanings.


(b) A decorated stick make from the outer part of the dry branch of the raffia palm tree. It is called Nsadang among the people of old Calabar .


(c)  The third is a kind of cryptic writing used among the Cross River people and in the border areas of Western Cameroun.


SIGNALS

These are the physical embodiments of a message. Many ancient signals are still being used for modern communication today.

For example, in Nigeria, there is hardly a broadcasting station which does not utilize drum signals to draw the attention of its listeners to the fact that they are about to begin transmission for the day, deliver their main news broadcast or announce time, close down or prepare for the broadcast of the local or national leader.

Some of the signals include fire, gunshots, canon shots, drum (wooden or skin).


SIGNS

Marks which are meaningful, or objects or symbols used to represent something are signs. It is a construct by which organisms affect the behavior or state of another in a communication context. Sign language (i.e. a system of human communication by gestures) has been developed for the deaf. While signs are more likely to be symbolic in certain contexts, symbols are not signs. Signs are associated with specific denotative meanings while symbols usually carry along with them connotative meanings as well.


Ross (1962:164-165) says symbols… require an interpreter who knows something of the system by virtue of which the symbol has meaning. Natural signs require an interpreter who knows a theory, or general law, in terms of which the sign is an index of the existence of something else.


OBJECTIFIES

Media presented in concrete forms which may have significance for a specific society only or may be universal through their traditional association with specific contextual meanings. These include: kola nut, the young unopened bud of the palm frond, charcoal, White Pigeon or fowl, white egg, feather, cowries, mimosa, flowers, sculptures, pictures, drawing, the flag etc.


COLOUR SCHEMES

This is the general conception and use of combination of colors in a design to convey some meanings. Color uses the advantages of pictorial communication by combining the speed of its impact and freedom from linguistic boundaries to achieve instant and effective communication.  Among the prominent colors used to communicate different meanings among the Cross River people are: red, white black, green, yellow, brown and turquoise. Combinations of these colors produce certain significant meanings for the society. Since colors play an important role in modern advertising, greater attention will continue to be given to them in the fields of science, industries, advertising, public relations and social communication.


MUSIC

Itinerant musical entertainment groups sing satirical songs, praise songs, and generally criticize wrong doings of individuals in society. Names of those being satirized or praised may be mentioned or descriptions of their physical or personality attributes, where they live, or what they do may form part of such songs. Grapevine stories concerning events that are being planned for the society may be featured as a way of alerting the generality of the people. Such groups as itembe, kokoma, ekpo, ekong and age grade choral groups perform these functions. They are potent sources of information and the latest gossip.


This is as Jacobson (1969:334) points out ‘an unconsummated symbol which evokes connotation and various articulation, yet is not really defined’.


EXTRA-MUNDANE COMMUNICATION

.This is the mode of communication between the living and the dead, the supernatural or Supreme Being. This is usually done through incantation, spiritual chants, ritual, prayers, sacrifice, invocation, séance, trance, hysterics or liberation. This is a multi-dimensional communication transaction which has become more pervasive in all societies most especially in Africa. 


Cultural ritual performance evokes intensity of emotion which may lead to a temporary spiritual transmigration of the participants as in religious or spiritual ceremonies. Such a performance conveys the elements of a  cultural celebration, dedication and consecration as is often witnessed in marriage and funeral rites. Modem forms of extra-mundane communication are found in obituary and in memorial notices published in newspapers, magazines or on radio and television.


SYMBOLIC DISPLAYS

These would be cultural-specific or may have universal significance and some of their characteristics are shared even with primates e.g. smiling, sticking out the tongue, expression of anger, disgust, happiness, and fear, the way we walk, or sit, gestures we use, voice qualities and other facial expressions.

In addition many traditional institutions, clubs or societies are also used for the purpose of disseminating information, passing on gossips, rumors and at times highly confidential information.

These institutions operate in both urban and rural areas. But most prominently some of them are found in urban and rural areas especially the following: cooperative societies, esusu (Osusu),

Clan/town/village/family unions, ethnic unions, voluntary organizations, drinking clubs, old students associations, market women’s associations, traders associations, religious groups, men only, and women only clubs, secret societies, cults, sports clubs, recreational clubs, age traders, choral groups, self-help group, occupational groups and many others which may fall within any one or more of the groups listed and whose objectives may not be for communication purposes but whose activities are directly linked with communication.

Perhaps it is important to note here that such international organizations as the Rosicrucian (Amorc) order, Rotary, Lions, Inner-Wheel, Lodges, Religious denominations, Pirates or the National Association of Seadogs, and the Palm Wine Drinkers Clubs scattered all over educational institutions throughout Nigeria are such powerful social, religious and political organizations that some of them even run newspapers, magazines, or newsletters which circulate widely among members and nonmembers. These are in addition to the communication transaction that takes place when the members of the organizations meet. Some of them have other means by which members communicate among themselves either for good or for bad. It is however possible for one man to be a member of almost all the clubs around him, some of whose activities he may not necessarily participate in. 

The most important aspect of these organizations is that they are engaged in a lot of communication activities. It is however clear from the examples given that opinion leadership plays a vital role in the communication transaction that takes place within each organization. In some cases members get advanced information on policy matters before the Government officially makes its stand known.

The merits and demerits of these societies can only be seriously considered within the impersonal context of national security and development and perhaps then can the personal interests of groups be seen to make sense if their activities in no way threaten the existence of the larger society.


THE CONTEXT OF TRADITIONAL AFRICAN COMMUNICATION

Communication processes in rural areas of Nigeria are in various forms and are geared toward achieving different communication goals and objectives. Thus they can be any of the following: directives, news, advertising, public relations, entertainment, and education.


(i) Directives are given in the form of:


(a) Announcements concerning public or community works, duties or responsibilities of the collective citizenry which must be carried out or defaulters within the community automatically face certain sanctions.

(b) Instructions to groups or individuals to carry out certain decisions of the traditional authority.

(c) Announcements about forthcoming events. This directive-approach has today been adopted by past civilian administrations and military juntas in their approach to governance and information dissemination, an approach often derided by those who prefer the western democratic approach.


(ii) News is often in the form of:


(a) Information about events which have taken place.

(b) Information about deaths, usually of very important citizens; in which case some of the seldom used modes of communicating such news are utilized.

(c) News may be about impending events.


(iii) Advertising is done through:


(a) The display of the products on a table, tree stump or flag pole.

(b) Use of peripatetic hawkers, vendors.

(c) Use of fragrance/odors/aroma to announce the products through the prospective consumer’s use of his olfactory sense as is the case in food selling; (e.g. akara, foofoo (ntororo)).

(d) Singing and drumming of the name of the product to be sold.


(iv) Public relations is carried out through:


(a) Person-to-person or person-to-organization basis where the individual tries to promote the image of his organization through praise singing.

(b) Performances and announcements made to enhance the work that is to be done

(c) Entertainment is perhaps the most pervasive in nature.

 This is done through music/dance/drama performances put up to be received free or pay for in public or private settings.

 

(v) Education is carried out most often:


(a) Informally but also formally through cultural groups.

(b) Through membership of certain societies.

(c) Learning takes place through membership of other socio-cultural groups.

CHARACTERISTICS OF TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION

Traditional media of communication is a complex system of communication which pervades all aspects of rural and urban life in Africa. It is complex in the sense that it is not only one system but a network of media systems, which operates at various levels of society. In reality, it is simple in its operation and it depends on trust for its credibility.

 

It displays different types of characteristics which makes it unique. These characteristics include;

1) It is dynamic

2) It is a multimedia with multichannel system.

3) It is authoritative

4) It culture bound

5) It is credible

6) It is definitive time

6) It is time honored

7) It is transactional

8)  It is customary

9) It is ubiquitous

10) It is integrative

11) It is cost effective

12) It is non-alienating

13) It is adoptable

14) It is invariably popular.

 

They are usually unvalued and marginalized by those who do not know them. They share many things in common, some are verbal others are symbolic communication in forms. They are utilitarian in nature. Some are purely for leisure and they utilized by a fixed number of people in a hamlet, village and small segment of people. Many of them are used for teaching while some are used for initiation into age groups (Ogbuoshi, 2010).

 

 

FUNCTIONS AND USES OF TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION

The traditional communication system is a complex one whose functions transcend the ordinary oracular postulations of western theorists. Since the system functions as part of the larger sociopolitical organization, reporting on and criticizing organs within the system, issuing directives from the legitimate, or in some cases titular, head, and providing education in the areas of the norms and mores of the society, stimulating the emotions and generally providing the light to innovations and helping their diffusion, its functions are more diverse and far-reaching than is often admitted. The real problem lies in the Ability of scholars to detach themselves from western theories, ankh turn detach traditional media system in a certain sense from the general current of activities within the society and see it as a unique system which needs a greater study and understanding.

 

Nevertheless some key functions and characteristics of the system are easily discernible.

1)      It mobilizes the people at the grassroots level towards community development and national consciousness.

2)      No serious mass-oriented program over succeeds without the active involvement of the practitioners within the traditional system. Much of the failure that attends government mass-oriented programs are traceable to the fact that policy makers at the national level fail to utilize this powerful and credible system.

3)       It is a source of cultural, political, health and other educational and enlightenment programs for the masses leading them towards self-actualization and national development. As has been pointed out above no real success visits such programs without the system being involved. Policy makers make some vague pronouncements on this score but they never really see to the execution of their decision.

4)      It is a source of entertainment through arts and cultural festivals, musicals and dramatic performances by choral and masquerade groups and other music and drama-oriented groups.

4) For example, the Ekpo masquerade group which provides entertainment musically and in the area of dance drama also thrills even in its re-enactment of spiritual ceremonies. The shrines and oracles are places where the educational function is also performed along with entertainment.

5)      It is used for intra-cultural, intercultural and other communication purposes leading to group and national unity. The yam festivals in various parts of southern Nigeria, the Oshun Festival in Oshogbo and the Argungu Fishing Festival in Sokoto are all examples of large traditional communication set-ups which bring about intercultural and even mass communication.

6)      It gives expression to cultural and other activities of the different parts of a nation.

 

Through festivals, for example, wide aspects of a cultural system are exposed to other cultures and greater understanding and appreciation of differences takes place. Through this, cross-cultural fertilization takes place and the society and mankind in general becomes better off.

 

 

From the above evidence, we can say that the traditional system is not competitive in the scene that individuals or organizations do not scramble for custom through whatever means, ethical or unethical. This is not to say that the different performing groups do not have their tiffs but these are often on matters more fundamental than the search for profit. The traditional newsman appointed by society operates on a part-time basis as he has other professional trades by which he earns a living. He could be a farmer, or a fisherman or a carpenter. But he is a trained professional who has been schooled in the principles and practices of the system. A current newsman naturally hands over to his son at the age when he can no longer make the rounds or when the role is withdrawn for whatever breach of social norms that may lead to such an action. When the traditional communicator advertises, it is not done to make profit. Traditional advertising is service-oriented not geared towards profit making.

MERITS OF TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION

1)      Different communication methods reduce confusion.

 

2)      It is face to face interaction which increases the understanding capability increases memory.

 

3)      They are cheaper than many other forms of communication more so compared to modern.

 

 

DEMERITS OF TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION

1)      Long lead times and unable to deliver your message immediately.

2)      High CPM for mass audience advertising. Heavy advertising clutter – often half of a magazine is advertising.

3)      Poor local coverage.

4)      Can’t deliver your message with a high frequency.


MODERN AND TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Communication is regarded as the key to building relationships. The modern forms of communication makes provision of opportunities to the individuals to maintain links with family members, relatives and friends.
In understanding communication in modern era, it is necessary to generate awareness in terms of usage of various kinds of technologies. In the modern era, technologies are made use of in communicating with others in a written as well as in a verbal manner.


The various forms of technologies that are made use of by the individuals in all spheres and fields, include, phones, I pads, lap-tops, and computers. In order to promote communication in an efficacious manner, it is indispensable for the individuals to augment their skills and abilities in terms of usage of technologies. Research has indicated, in some cases, individuals feel apprehensive, when they are making use of technologies.  

Therefore, in order to enhance their knowledge and skills, they need to get engaged in regular practice. Through technologies, one is able to communicate with others in distant places as well.


In educational institutions at all levels and training centres of different fields, there are organization of long-term as well as short-term training courses in terms of usage of technologies, so the individuals are able to up-grade their skills and abilities. In the modern era, technologies are regarded as crucial in augmenting communication. When the individuals generate awareness in terms of technologies, they are able to understand the massive range of ways and sources, which are to be put into operation to promote effective communication with others. In the modern era, when individuals are communicating with others, they need to be well-aware in terms of ways that are needed to communicate with others. For instance, when one has to send lengthy documents or reports, then email is regarded as significant. Whereas, when one has to send a brief message, then either one can send text messages or give a phone call. Therefore, it is vital for the individuals to make selection of the meaningful channel of communication.


INTERGRATING TRADITIONAL AND MODERN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Both traditional and modern mass communications are systems of communication. The former is simple while the latter is complex and sophisticated. The mass media can address the communication needs of diverse audience within a short period. They preserve and refine the trade modes of communication with a view to addressing the entertainment and education needs of the people. The mass media can initiate social change in the society using any of the forms of traditional communication in a globalised manner.

The mass media overcome the challenges of trade-communication by opening 24-hour vistas of communication to anonymous, heterogeneous and large audience across national frontiers.
Both the trado-communication and the mass media can re-engineer the society depending on how they are used. The mass media are wider in concept, sophisticated in the process and dynamic in operations. The reverse is almost the case in traditional communication.

As stated previously, the origin of communication technology is rooted in the traditional channels of communication however crude and rudimentary they had been. Communication evolved from man’s innate will to exchange ideas, understand one another and relate well. Humanity has never completely discarded the various forms and channels of traditional communication. The sophisticated means of communication has not led to the total jettisoning of the earlier forms.

The capacity of the traditional systems to produce, multiply, amplify, store and retrieve messages had only been buoyed up by the current modern communication. The ancient cave drawings and paintings were modeled as artifacts and pictographic writing which gave birth to t h e modern system of writing on paper, books and newspapers. The ancient Greeks’ series of fire tower which stretched across the country side and relayed messages through smoke and fire, served as a precursor of today’s satellite communication.

Similarly, the carriage of message through horseback between regular stations on a regular basis also foreshadowed the modern courier services and postal systems. The traditional examples abound – cave drawings, smoke, music and dance, theatre, drums, signal fires, pictogram, ideogram, fire towers, artifacts, traditional non-verbal cues and signs, etc. The defining characteristic of these traditional means of communication are:


They are based usually on interpersonal and interpersonal levels of communication, thus limited in range and amplification of messages, and are culture-based. They are traditional signs and symbols which have meanings only to a particular culture and among a people or community. Even among many developing countries with a multiplicity of languages, it might be difficult, if not altogether impossible, to
deduce meanings from traditional signs and symbols outside the culture domain.  For instance, many traditional Yoruba signs  and symbols are limited to the people of the same ethnic group,  there by ma king it difficult for a typical Hausa, Igbo, Nupe, Tiv or Ijaw indigene to understand. It is interesting to note also that not all Yoruba communities will draw meanings from some of such signs and symbols.

This position does not, however, remove the fact that some gestures are today becoming more universal. For example, such signs as handshake while greeting, kissing, nodding for acceptance or rejection, etc, are more universal in the world today.

The main components of traditional channels of communication are composed largely of non-verbal signals. Indeed, this might be because of their pristine origin. Many of the sound forms were developed when man originated the power of the spoken word.

 However, a large body of non-verbal cues had developed before this time.
The significance of the traditional means of communication is not in dispute even in the modern world. This significance can be seen in the following ways:

a.  The interpersonal nature of the traditional systems makes them effective where attitude and behavior changes are desired. For example, traditional channels of communication have been used by information Ministries in states in Nigeria and at the Federal level to change the attitude of farmers to accept use of fertilizer and
insecticides; for communities to accept modern family planning methods, breast feeding, etc. Recently, traditional communication channels were combined with the services of opinion leaders, among them the Sultan of Sokoto, in making Northern communities embrace vaccination against polio and measles.

b. Traditional channels of communication are also effective for cultural and social integration purposes as in during the introduction of youths into age-grades in African societies.

c. They are relevant for instigating political action. In this circumstance, many political organizations and parties use traditional means of communication for mass mobilization.
  They are also useful in dispelling superstitions, archaic and unscientific attitudes.

f. Traditional channels of communication are forming a significant component of performing arts, so they preserve the songs, stories, music and culture of the people.

g. They survive as components of education activities as they can be effectively used in schools and other media of learning.

 

 

ADAPTING THE MASS MEDIA FOR EFFECTIVE RURAL COMMUNIATION

An efficient use of mass media for economic and social development implies that they should be as local as possible. Their programs should originate no further than necessary from their audiences; the programs should be prepared by persons who understand the culture to which they are speaking, and means should be available for the audience for the audience to report back to the media schramm (1964). To mobilize, for development, the vast illiterate masses of the rural areas of developing countries , extensive change in knowledge and attitudes are needed.

 

Earlier attempts at achieving these fundamental objectives through the face-to-face method of communication proved ineffective. The mass media which introduced as alternative also produced very little effect primarily because of how they were used -mainly to meet government expectation rather than to involve the people and elicit positive participation in development activities. This chapter proposes decentralized media activity policy which creates opportunity for access to mass media infrastructures and physical participation in media activities for rural masses. The chapter is also applicable to the sub urban slums (the cornubations) of developing societies, and the inner cities of the developed societies. These segments suffer from most of the problems that affect rural communities – poverty, hunger, illiteracy, dearth of social amenities, poor sanitation, disease, poor health and fatalism. 

 

In addition, slums and the inner- cities suffer from a very everlasting psychological problem. Being near to, and constantly seeing, affluence (to which they have no access) around them, make them feel the naked impact of socio-economic deprivation.

 

The UNESCO declared in 1967 that there was convincing evidence frol)1 projects many parts of the world that the mass media can be effectively applied to the development 0f resources to meet basic economic, social, political, education and cultural needs of the nations.

Since then, many governments in the developing world intensified their efforts at utilizing the mass media in their efforts to transform their societies.

 

These efforts were, of course, centered around the use of radio, which was then the only known medium of mass communication in the rural areas of these developing societies. In south America, Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica and Brazil- among others, intensified their use of Radio schools for the purposes of rural education and development. In Asia, the story was about the same. India, Afghanistan, Thailand, Indonesia, and Korea, focused on the use of instructional Radio and Radio Farm Forums. Africa, too, was not left out. Cameroun, Kenya, Mauritius, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, among others, utilized the open Broadcast system, as well as the Instructional Radio and the Radio Farm Forum ( McAnany, 1973: 15-21)

However, as pointed out in 1974 by the World Bank, these efforts at using the mass media in  development did not positively affect the lives of the people in the developing countries to any appreciable degree. Referring specifically to the Education Sector, the World Bank (1974:4) had this to say:

  In spite of the considerable efforts made by the developing countries about half of their citizens children and adults alike are without a minimum level of education, and prospects for the next decade are not promising.

 

As with education, so it was with health, agriculture, sanitation, transportation and so on. Benefits derived from the mass media efforts were very insignificant; and even so, the little benefits that accrued went to citizens who were already well-of in comparison to the 85-90% of the population who lived in abject poverty and who, therefore, needed the development benefits most.

Two basic reasons can be given for the very limited success of the mass media in development activities in the developing societies. The first is the weakness of one of the inherent characteristics of the mass media-their one way nature. “Technologies of discourse tend to a transmission approach to communication . thus reducing ‘receivers’ to somewhat static individuals and psychological dispositions which are to be mobilized by ‘hard- edged’ messages.”(Tulloch &Lupton :1997, p.80). Unless there is an intermediary at  the reception end, such messages tend to be ignored or forgotten, because in the main, they are either not understood or are irrelevant. This is why Dervin (1992, p. 67) recommends the constructionist approaches to communication which seek to situation self constructing, agentive individuals in the context of the ‘culture, history and institutions that define much of the world within which the individuals lives’.

 

 

The second reason lies in the way the media were used. In Africa, the approach to mass media use was (and has continued to be) based on a perspective which McQuail (1983:94) has called the development Media theory. This  theoretical perspective requires that the mass media become companions in development with the government, and therefore should accept and carry out positive development task in line with the government, and therefore should accept and carry out positive development tasks in line with nationally established policy. However, the perspective also supports restricting the mass media in the interest of economic priority, and upholds the right of the government to intervene in media operations in the interest of  development.

 

 

The government can do this through censorship, subsidy and direct control. The theory did not, however, specify how to determine true interest, and who should determine it. This approach to media use in development, which also obtained in most of the other developing societies, sees the mass media only as the long arm of the government, and holds that their main function is that of obtaining the people’s support for, and compliance with the aims and objectives of the usual five-year national development plans.

 

RURAL COMMUNITY BROADCASTING

  Rural areas generally refer to areas in a country that are not fully developed. They are areas in a nation where you still have high traditional lifestyles that cannot be found in the urban areas or centres. Udoaka (1998, p. 49), cited in Asemah, Anum and Edegoh (2013, p. 21) avers that when the word „„rural‟‟ is mentioned in Africa, certain things are conjured in our minds.
   These images, according to Udoaka centre on acute un-development and poverty and they manifest themselves in the form of bad roads, lack of water supply, poor housing, poor sanitation and high rate of illiteracy. Udoaka further observes that the word brings to mind geographic locations in African, with populations of hungry, wretched looking people and stunted, kwashiorkor riddled children. It conjures the image of a people, who suffer in the farms, from morning to evening, but whose harvest is not commensurate with the efforts and time spent; it conjures the image of people who are starving, eating at best, once in a day after returning from the market.

   Several scholars have conceptualised the concept of rural broadcasting in different ways. However, their explanation of the term when examined means the same thing. For instance, Myers (2000) cited in Ugande (2005) refers to rural broadcasting as a small-scale decentralised broadcasting initiatives which are easily accessed by local people actively encourage their participation in programming, and which include some elements of community ownership or membership. One fundamental component of rural broadcasting that Myers‟ definition identifies is access and participation. This definition of rural broadcasting sees the concept as a two-way process which entails the exchange of information, views and opinions from a variety of sources and the adoption of media for use by the communities. Under this arrangement, the rural people will participate in the conceptualisation and execution of programmes and policies that would lead to their development.

    According to Asemah (2011), rural broadcasting connotes the dissemination and transmission of social development programmes to the rural people, so as to affect their behaviour positively. He went further to assert that it entails the use of
community radio and television to carry out development programmes to the rural dwellers. To Iyimoga cited in Akene (1992), rural development is a call for a massive and multi-pronged efforts, which should not only seek to boost production, but also create and spread employment and root out the fundamental causes of poverty, illiteracy and diseases.

   Rural broadcasting therefore, represents one of the best ways of reaching the rural people with development messages. The
rationale behind rural broadcasting is to ensure that development oriented messages are communicated to the rural people. It
is pertinent to note that development communication cannot be successfully carried out without the engagement of rural
broadcasting. Rural broadcasting becomes an appropriate medium for reaching rural areas, which at the moment are still lacking behind in accessing events and activities via modern communication devices which tend to be urban orientated in programme content. The objectives of rural broadcasting according to Konkwo (2007) include the following:

a. The sensitisation of the rural people towards appreciating themselves and their environment and how to improve them.

b. Enlightening the rural people participate in their civic duties and to enable them to understand their right and obligation as citizens of the country.

c. To empower the rural people with information to the advantage of the economic programmes and policies ofgovernment.

d. To enlighten the rural people to appreciate the need for personal hygiene and general environmental sanitation.

e. To enable the citizens to participate in the political decision-making process.

f. To enable the rural man to understand his constitutional right and to be voted for.

g. To enable the rural people to take rational, correct and judicious economic decisions based on the information they obtained from the broadcast media and other means of communication.

h. To foster the education of the rural child through the production and transmission of appropriate educational programme . To enable the rural farmer to appreciate the use of modern agricultural innovations and for more and improved yield.

SCHEMATIC MODELS OF COMMUNICATION

The models of communication are regarded as important concepts that helps in understanding the processes of communication. Like the nature and concept of communication, the models of communication are also regarded as crucial. There has been extensive research conducted on the models of communication. But there is no single theory or model, which has found general acceptance.
The models of communication have the main objective of generating information among the individuals in terms of important concepts of communication. When understanding the models of communication, it is vital to understand what model means. A model is referred to the graphic representation, which is designed to provide explanation in terms of the ways of the working of the variable. It is a plan, pattern, representation or description that is designed to depict the structure as well as functioning of the objects, systems and concepts. A model of communication provides a convenient way of generating information in terms of graphical checklist of various elements.


A model can be defined as the visual representation that identifies, classifies and describes various parts of the process. In the communication process, the main features include, sender, message, media and receiver. There is a strong association between these features. Communication process initiates with the transmission of message by the communicator and ends with the feedback given by the receivers. When this communication process is represented through line or picture, it is known as the communication model. In other words, the pictorial representation of communication process is known as the communication model. The simple communication model consists of the sender, message and receiver. When the communication model is created in a simple way and comprises of these three features, then it does not take into account other aspects. In the communication model, the various parts of the communication processes are illustrated in a sequential and rational way.

 

There are two models of communication, linear and transactional. Linear is regarded as the basic model, whereas, transactional model is the model, which builds upon the linear model. The senders communicate with the receivers. It is a one-way channel. Within the course of the implementation of communication process, there are various kinds of barriers as well, which the senders and receivers are required to experience. These are unwanted and cause disturbances within the course of effective communication. The meaning and significance of the communication models lies in the fact that they are designed to provide an insight into the working and understanding of the dynamic process of communication, which is fundamental to the lives of the individuals. In the past, the models of communication were simple. But within the course of time, improvements have taken place and there have been establishment of new models. By the 1950s, the models of communication become more elaborate and rendered a significant contribution towards the understanding of the communication process. 

 

The models of communication which gained prominence included Lasswell Model (1948), Shannon and Weaver Model (1949), Charles Osgood’s Model (1954), Schramm Model (1954), George Gerbner’s Model (1956), Theodore M. Newcomb’s Model (1953) and Bruce H. Wesley’s and M.S. MacLean’s Model (1957). The majority of the models are linear, i.e. one directional. Through the models, the individuals understand that communication not only takes place through oral and written forms, but signs and symbols are also used to communicate. Furthermore, the individuals are able to understand that it is vital for them to communicate with each other within the social environment. Communication is regarded as the continuous process, which takes place throughout the lives of the individuals. Therefore, when one is conducting research on communication, it is essential for the individuals to understand models of communication.

OBJECTIVES OF MODELS IN COMMUNICATION

The primary objective of models of communication is to acquire an understanding of the communication processes. In addition, it helps in understanding important aspects of communication. The various objectives of models of communication are:

1. Providing information regarding elements of communication.
2. Conducting research.

3. Providing information in terms of ways to promote success of communication processes.

4. Generating information in terms of factors that would lead to failure of communication processes.

5. Manageable implementation of communication processes.

6. Showing information flow.

7. Introducing features of communication processes.

8. Presentation of communication processes.
Understanding the complexities of communication processes.

9. Measures to bring about improvements in communication processes.

FUNCTIONS OF MODELS OF COMMUNICATION

The primary function of models of communication is to enhance the skills and abilities of the individuals to communicate in an effective manner. When the individuals are working towards augmenting communication skills, they need to generate awareness in terms of various elements that are involved in sending and receiving of messages. From the communication model, one can learn and augment their understanding in terms of various aspects of communication processes.
For this reason, it is stated that communication model generates awareness in terms of processes of communication. Furthermore, the communication model helps in conducting research in the field of communication. Research is regarded as one of the indispensable factors that is necessary for the individuals. It is conducted through making use of technologies, reading materials, and through communicating with others. Through these ways, the individuals acquire information and augment their understanding in terms of various factors of communication.

 

Communication model presents various aspects of communication logically that help the researchers in acquiring an understanding of the pattern of communication. With the help of the communication models, the researchers can undertake communication programs and put them into operation in a well-organized manner. In all the places, educational institutions, employment settings, public places, and home, the individuals need to implement communication programs. Through the models of communication, one can acquire an efficient understanding in terms of communication programs. Therefore, generating information in terms of communication programs is also one of the indispensable functions of models of communication. It is comprehensively understood that all individuals, irrespective of their categories and backgrounds, aspire to make the communication processes worthwhile and successful. For this purpose, they need to understand the models of communication. Through the models of communication, the individuals generate information in terms of ways to make the communication programs successful. Therefore, it is one of the indispensable functions of models of communication to make the communication programs successful.

 

Another function of the communication models is to contribute sufficiently in identifying the setbacks of the communication processes. Through the models, one can identify the causes of setbacks of the communication processes. When the individuals experience setbacks in the communication processes, they need to ensure, they work towards their elimination. In order to eliminate setbacks, it is vital for the individuals to understand that they need to respond effectively, provide valid and truthful information and ensure obtaining feedback from others. After the feedback has been provided, the individuals need to come to a conclusion of the communication processes. Within the course of communication, there are occurrence of barriers, which may cause disturbances. But it is vital for the individuals to generate awareness in terms of ways to overcome the barriers. Therefore, the important function of communication models is to identify the barriers and put into operation the measures and strategies to overcome them.

 

The individuals have different purposes of communication. In some cases, they communicate to obtain answers to questions, whereas, in some cases, it takes place when individuals are giving guidance and suggestions to each other, or when they need to express their ideas and perspectives and so forth. The individuals want to achieve success in the process of communication. In other words, all individuals aspire to make the communication processes successful and meaningful. Through the models of communication, the individuals are able to augment their understanding and acquire information in terms of ways, which are necessary in making all forms of communication worthwhile. In some cases, communication among individuals is characterized by conflicts and disagreements as well. But all individuals, need to understand that they need to put into operation peaceful conflict resolution methods and should not let these situations assume a major form. Therefore, it can be stated, it is one of the important functions of models of communication to provide information in terms of methods, which are necessary to alleviate any forms of stress and negativities in the communication processes.

MODELS OF COMMUNICATION

The models of communication are;

 

1. Lasswell Model (1948) 

 

2. Shannon and Weaver Model (1949)

 

3. Charles Osgood’s Model (1954)

 

4. Schramm Model (1954)

 

5. Bruce H. Wesley’s and M.S. MacLean’s Model (1957).  These have been stated as follows:

LASSWELL’S MODEL (1948)

The American sociologist and psychologist, Harold D. Lasswell is best known for his work in the linear model of communication. In this model, the important concepts, which need to be taken into account are, who is saying something, what type of channels are used to convey the message, who the message is aimed at and which channel has to be made use of to convey the message.
Communications sciences and public relations are often used to make this model a classic sender and receiver model. The reason being, major emphasis of this model is put upon the information that is to be communicated and the channels, which are made use of in the communication processes. Verbal communication is the communication that is described in this model.

 

Lasswell model is regarded as one of the early models of communication. It was developed by political scientist Harold D. Lasswell, who looked at communication in the form of various types of questions. These include, who, what, in which channel, to whom and with what effect. This model focussed attention on the essential elements of communication and identified the areas in which communication research is conducted. When communication is to take place, questions are put forward in terms of identification of the source of message. Whereas, what is the question that is raised to acquire an understanding in terms of analysis of the message. In other words, when the individuals are communicating with each other, then the questions of who, what, in which channel, to whom and with what effect are common questions, which need to be put forward. The basic model of communication takes into account the components of communication. Furthermore, this model implies that more than one channel would be used to carry the message. This model was considered as the oversimplified model, which implied the presence of the communicator and the message.

SHANNON AND WEAVER MODEL (1949)

This is the model, which was initiated by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver. It has been regarded as one of the important models of communication. In addition, it has been utilized in an effective manner in the generation of other models as well. It is referred to as the transmission model of communication.
The reason being, the individuals are able to make use of this model in a manageable way to transfer information. One of the major benefits of this model is, it involves signal transmission of information. In this model, the message through the transmitter is transmitted through the channel to the receiver. Through the receiver, the messages reaches its destination. In this model, the information source is made use of to generate a message, which is to be communicated out of the set of possible messages. The messages may consist of spoken as well as written words. This indicates that this model can be used in oral and written forms of communication.

 

In this model, the information sources produces the message to be communicated out of the set of various types of messages. Through this model, there have been introduction of concepts, such as, noise, disturbances or errors in transmission. There is a need to maintain the necessary balance between entropy, which means the degree of uncertainty and redundancy, which refers to the uniqueness of information. This implied that for effective communication, the greater the noise in communication, the greater is the need for building redundancy. The repetition of the message causes the reduction in the relative entropy or in other words, the uncertainty in terms of the message. This model was criticized for being based on the hardware aspect, which is developed for engineering problems and not for facilitating communication between human beings. Another criticism is, it did not take into account the element of feedback. The element of feedback is regarded as vital in making the communication processes complete.

CHARLES OSGOOD’S MODEL (1954)

Charles Osgood in his model shows that communication is the dynamic process, in which there is an interactive relationship between the sender and the receiver. When the individuals are engaged in the communication processes, they send as well as receive messages. It is regarded as the two way process. When the individuals are to bring about an end to the communication processes, they need to give concluding remarks.
This model imparts information that when the individuals are communicating with each other, they need to implement the methods of encoding, decoding and interpreting the messages. These practices are carried out through the number of feedback mechanisms. This model focused upon the social nature of communication. This model was found more applicable in interpersonal communication, in which the sources and the receivers of messages are physically present.

 

For example, when the teacher imparts information in terms of lesson plans to the students, then interaction is facilitated, by asking questions, exchanging ideas and viewpoints and so forth. Therefore, the role of interpretation of the message has also been highlighted in this model for decoding a message.

This model focuses upon the perspective that communication needs to get implemented among the individuals in an energetic and lively manner. When the individuals ask questions, the others need to provide answers, which may enable them to acquire an efficient understanding of the concepts. In such cases, it is vital that they should express positive feelings and give proper feedback. There are cases, when certain concepts are difficult to understand. In some cases, individuals may not acquire an efficient understanding of the concepts, when they ask questions. In such cases, the senders of information, who are providing answers to questions need to provide elaborate explanation, so receivers are able to understand easily and communication processes are facilitated in an efficient manner. Therefore, it is vital for the communication processes to be energetic and lively.

SCHRAMM’S MODEL (1954)

Wilbur Schramm, a well-known communication expert did not make a distinction between technical and non-technical communication. But influenced by the ideas of Shannon and Osgoods, Wilbur Schramm proceeded from the simple communication model to a more complicated one.
There is large amount of similarity with the Shannon and Weaver Model. In the second model, Wilbur Schramm visualized the processes of communication as a process of sharing of experience and commonality of experience in terms of the individuals, who are communicating. This model introduced the concept of shared orientation between sender and receiver. The main concept that is emphasized upon is, the sender and the receiver share information with each other, in terms of various kinds of experiences. When they have similar experiences, the processes of communication becomes more effective and worthwhile.

 

In this model, the accumulated experience of two individuals engaged in the communication processes is emphasized unlike in the linear models, which have been discussed earlier. In this case, interaction, feedback and sharing of experiences do not find any place. The source can encode and the destination can decode in terms of the experiences that the individuals have. When the individuals are engaged in similar kind of job duties, belonging to same categories and backgrounds and have similar experiences, they are able to understand each other well. On the other hand, when the individuals are different from each other in terms of various factors, then they will experience problems in communicating and communication processes will not be implemented in an effective manner. Furthermore, through this model, the comprehensive social situations and the relationships between both source and destination are reinforced. When both the senders and receivers are in same kinds of situations, they need to make selection of the message, receive and interpret it in accordance to the frames of reference in which noise and feedback play important roles.

 

THE ACB MODEL (1957)

 The model that is designed by Bruce H. Wesley and M.S. MacLean is an extension of the Newcomb’s model. It has been specifically adapted for mass media. It is based on the assumption that the messages in mass communication, pass through different points, which are known as gatekeepers, before they reach the audience. In other words, there is a mediator, who render a significant contribution in facilitating communication between the senders and the receivers. The gatekeeper concept is essentially referred to as a concept, which is mostly used in mass media and is associated with the news on frequent basis. This model focuses upon the aspect that the role of gatekeepers are regarded as crucial in facilitating the communication processes. The primary job duties of the gatekeepers are, they are required to make decisions in terms of what messages are to be transmitted and how the content has to get modified.

 

   Source of information, sender, gatekeeper, audience and feedback are regarded as important features of this model. The limitation of this model is, it applies only to mass media and does not take into account the relationships between mass media and other systems, through which the individuals need to get engaged in communication with each other on a continuous basis. These include, family, work, friendships, educational institutions, organizations, religious places, public places and all the other formal and informal networks, through which terms and relationships are established among individuals. Normally, communication processes are facilitated among the individuals through various forms with their family, educational institutions, organizations, communities and public places. They do not depend upon the media to such an extent as implied by this model. Therefore, it can be stated, this is one of the major limitations, which need to be alleviated in order to make the model successful.

THE APPLICATIONS OF THE INTERNET TO COMMUNICATION STUDIES

THE INTERNET

The vast network of telephone and cable lines, wireless connections, and satellite systems designed to link and carry digital information worldwide was initially described as an information superhighway. This description implied that the goal of the Internet was to build a new media network a new superhighway to replace traditional media (e.g., books, newspapers, television, and radio) . The old highway system. In many ways, the original description of the Internet has turned out to be true. The Internet has expanded dramatically from its initial establishment in the 1960s to an enormous media powerhouse that encompasses but has not replaced all other media today.

On this note , The internet is a double edge sword available globally making it possible for us to connect and share information.

FEATURES OT THE INTERNET

In digital communication, an image, a text, or a sound is converted into electronic signals represented as a series of binary numbers ones and zeros which are then reassemble asa precise reproduction of an image, a text, or a sound. Digital signals operate as pieces, orbits (from BInary digiTS), of information representing two values, such as yes/no, on/off, or,  For example, a typical compact disc track uses a binary code system in which zeros are microscopic pits in the surface of the disc and ones are represented on the unpitted surface. Used in various combinations, these digital codes can duplicate, store, and play back the most complex kinds of media content.

THE ORIGINS OF THE INTERNET

  From its humble origins as a military communications network in the 1960s, the Internet became increasingly interactive by the 1990s, allowing immediate two-way communication and one-to-many communication. By 2000, the Internet was a multimedia source for both information and entertainment as it quickly became an integral part of our daily lives. For example, in 2000, about 50 percent of American adults were connected to the Internet; by 2014, about 87 percent of American adults used the Internet.

The Internet originated military-government project, with computer time-sharing as one of its goals. In the 1960s, computers were relatively new, and there were only a few of the expensive, room-sized mainframe computers across the country for researchers to use.

 

The Defense Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) developed a solution to enable researchers to share computer processing time starting in the late 1960s. This original Internet called ARPAnet and nicknamed the Net enabled military and academic researchers to communicate on a distributed network system.

First, ARPA created a wired network system in which users from multiple locations could log into a computer whenever they needed it. Second, to prevent logjams in data communication, the network used a system called packet switching, which broke down messages into smaller pieces to more easily route them through the multiple paths on the network before reassembling them on the other end.

 

  Ironically, one of the most hierarchically structured and centrally organized institutions in our culture the national defense industry created the Internet, possibly the least hierarchical and most decentralized social network ever conceived. Each computer hub in the Internet has similar status and power, so nobody can own the system outright, and nobody has the power to kick others off the network. There isn’t even a master power switch, so authority figures cannot shut off the Internet.
To enable military personnel and researchers involved in the development of ARPAnet to better communicate with one another from separate locations, an essential innovation during the development stage of the Internet was e-mail. It was invented in 1971 by computer engineer Ray Tomlinson, who developed software to send electronic mail messages to any computer on ARPAnet. He decided to use the @ symbol to signify the location of the computer user, thus establishing the “login name@host computer” convention for e-mail addresses.

At this point in the development stage, the Internet was primarily a tool for universities, government research labs, and corporations involved in computer software and other high￾tech products to exchange e-mail and to post information. As the use of the Internet continued to proliferate, the entrepreneurial stage quickly came about.

  From the early 1970s until the late 1980s, a number of factors (both technological and his￾torical) brought the Net to the entrepreneurial stage, in which it became a marketable medium. The first signal of the Net’s marketability came in 1971 with the introduction of microprocessors, miniature circuits that process and store electronic signals. This innovation facilitated the integration of thousands of transistors and related circuitry into thin strands of silicon along which binary codes traveled. Using microprocessors, manufacturers were eventually able to introduce the first personal computers (PCs), which were smaller, cheaper, and more powerful than the bulky computer systems of the 1960s. With personal computers now readily available, a second opportunity for marketing the Net came in 1986, when the National Science Foundation developed a high-speed communications network (NSFNET) designed to link university research computer centers around the country and also encourage private investment in the Net. This innovation led to a dramatic increase in Internet use and further opened the door to the widespread commercial possibilities of the Internet.

In the mid-1980s, fiber-optic cable became the standard for transmitting communication￾data speedily. Featuring thin glass bundles of fiber capable of transmitting thousands of messages simultaneously (via laser light), fiber-optic cables began replacing the older, bulkier copper wire used to transmit computer information. This development made the commercial use of computers even more viable than before. With this increased speed, few limits exist with regard to the amount of information that digital technology can transport.

With the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the late 1980s, the ARPAnet military venture officially ended. By that time, a growing community of researchers, computer programmers, amateur hackers, and commercial interests had already tapped into the Net, creating tens of thousands of points on the network and the initial audience for its emergence as a mass medium.

THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)

The goals of the developers of the Web were to create a seamless network from which any data from any site could be accessed in a consistent fashion; to design a flexible system that allowed for the use of existing data on the Internet; and to make the system so easy to use, that an average person, not just a computer expert, could use it. With these goals in mind, they created the HyperText Markup Language (HTML) as the coding for Web documents. HyperText and hypermedia documents contain links to other documents or sections within the same document. Links allow you to jump from one section of a document to another or to a different Web site that contains related information.  The Web is the ultimate in ‘point and click’ access.  In order to access the information on the Web, a browser is needed. A browser is a software programme that can access and view HTML documents. It is also referred to as a WWW client.   

 

The World Wide Web (WWW) enables users to view a wide variety of information, including magazines, archives, public and college library resources, and current world and business news. The connections to different sources of computers, or servers, on the network are made automatically without being seen by the users. The WWW was developed at the European Particle Physics Lab (CERN) in Switzerland by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 to allow information-sharing among internationally dispersed teams of high-energy physics researcher. It’s development spread beyond CERN, with a rapid number of developers and users increasing. In addition to hypertext, the web began to incorporate graphics, video, and sound. Today, the use of the web has reached global proportions.  The attractive thing about the Web is the ability of a user to access several other Internet services (E-mail. FTP, Telnet, and Usenet News) through their protocol (SMTP, Telnet Protocol, FTP, and NNTP) on a single interface. This is possible through the use of the web protocol: HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

 

This creates a convenient and user-friendly environment, which makes it unnecessary for one to be conversant in the other protocols within separate, command level environments. The web gathers these protocols into one single system. It is for this reason and the web’s ability to work with multimedia and advanced programming languages, which makes it the fastest-growing component of the Internet.

SOCIAL MEDIA

 Social media are interactive technologies and digital channels that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, interests, and other forms of expression through virtual communities and networks. While challenges to the definition of social media arise due to the variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services currently available, there are some common features.

 

Social media are interactive Web 2.0 Internet-based applications. User-generated content such as text posts or comments, digital photos or videos, and data generated through all online interactions is the lifeblood of social media. Users create service specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization.  Social media helps the development of online social networks by connecting a user’s profile with those of other individuals or groups.

Users usually access social media services through web-based apps on desktops or download services that offer social media functionality to their mobile devices (e.g., smartphones and tablets). As users engage with these electronic services, they create highly interactive platforms which individuals, communities, and organizations can share, co-create, discuss, participate, and modify user-generated or self-curated content posted online.  

 

 Additionally, social media are used to document memories; learn about and explore things; advertise oneself; and form friendships along with the growth of ideas from the creation of blogs, podcasts, videos, and gaming sites.This changing relationship between humans and technology is the focus of the emerging field of technological self-studies. Some of the most popular social media websites, with more than 100 million registered users, include Facebook (and its associated Facebook Messenger), TikTok, WeChat, Instagram, QZone, Weibo, Twitter, Tumblr, Baidu Tieba, and LinkedIn. Depending on interpretation, other popular platforms that are sometimes referred to as social media services include YouTube, QQ, Quora, Telegram, WhatsApp, Signal, LINE, Snapchat, Pinterest, Viber, Reddit, Discord, VK, Microsoft Teams, and more. Wikis are examples of collaborative content creation.  Many social media outlets differ from traditional media (e.g., print magazines and newspapers, TV, and radio broadcasting) in many ways, including quality, reach, frequency, usability, relevancy, and permanence.   

 

Additionally, social media outlets operate in a dialogic transmission system, i.e., many sources to many receivers, while traditional media outlets operate under a monologic transmission model (i.e., one source to many receivers). For instance, a newspaper is delivered to many subscribers and a radio station broadcasts the same programs to an entire city.   Since the dramatic expansion of the Internet, digital media or digital rhetoric can be used to represent or identify a culture. Studying how the rhetoric that exists in the digital environment has become a crucial new process for many scholars. Observers have noted a wide range of positive and negative impacts when it comes to the use of social media. Social media can help to improve an individual’s sense of connectedness with real or online communities and can be an effective communication (or marketing) tool for corporations, entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, advocacy groups, political parties, and governments. Observers have also seen that there has been a rise in social movements using social media as a tool for communicating and organizing in times of political unrest.

 

Social media promotes users to share content with others and display content in order to enhance a particular brand or product. Social media allows people to be creative and share interesting ideas with their followers or fans. Certain social media applications such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram are places where users share specific political or sports content. Many reporters and journalists produce updates and information on sports and political news. It can truly give users pertinent and necessary information to stay up to date on relevant news stories and topics. However, there is a down side to it. Users are advised to exercise due diligence when they are using social media platforms.

SEARCH ENGINE

Search Engines Organize the Web As the number of Web sites on the Internet quickly expanded, companies seized the opportunity to provide ways to navigate this vast amount of information by providing directories and search engines. One of the more popular search engines, Yahoo!, began as a directory. In 1994, Stanford University graduate students Jerry Yang and David Filo created a Web page—“Jerry and David’s Guide to the World Wide Web”—to organize their favorite Web sites, first into categories, then into more and more subcategories as the Web grew. At that point, the entire World Wide Web was almost manageable, with only about twenty-two thousand Web sites. (By 2014 Google announced it had indexed more than sixty trillion Web pages, up from one billion in    2000.) The guide made a lot of sense to other people, and soon enough Yang and Filo renamed it the more memorable Yahoo!. 

 

Eventually, though, having employees catalog individual Web sites became impractical.  Search engines offer a more automated route to finding content by allowing users to enter key words or queries to locate related Web pages. Search engines are built on mathematic algorithms. Google, released in 1998, became a major success because it introduced a new algorithm that mathematically ranked a page’s “popularity” on the basis of how many other pages linked to it. Google later moved to maintain its search dominance with its Google Voice Search and Google Goggles apps, which allow smartphone users to conduct searches by voic￾ing search terms or by taking a photo. By 2015, Google’s global market share accounted for more than 70 percent of searches, while Microsoft’s Bing claimed 9.8 percent, Yahoo! reached 9.6 percent, and China’s Baidu claimed 7.5 percent.

GOOGLE

Google), is a search engine provided by Google. Handling more than 3.5 billion searches per day, it has a 92% share of the global search engine market. It is also the most-visited website in the world. The order of search results returned by Google is based, in part, on a priority rank system called “PageRank”. Google Search also provides many different options for customized searches, using symbols to include, exclude, specify or require certain search behavior, and offers specialized interactive experiences, such as flight status and package tracking, weather forecasts, currency, unit, and time conversions, word definitions, and more. The main purpose of Google Search is to search for text in publicly accessible documents offered by web servers, as opposed to other data, such as images or data contained in databases. It was originally developed in 1997 by Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Scott Hassan. In June 2011, Google introduced “Google Voice Search” to search for spoken, rather than typed, words. 

 

In May 2012, Google introduced a Knowledge Graph semantic search feature in the U.S. Analysis of the frequency of search terms may indicate economic, social and health trends. Data about the frequency of use of search terms on Google can be openly inquired via Google Trends and have been shown to correlate with flu outbreaks and unemployment levels, and provide the information faster than traditional reporting methods and surveys. As of mid-2016, Google’s search engine has begun to rely on deep neural networks. Google indexes hundreds of terabytes of information from web pages. For websites that are currently down or otherwise not available, Google provides links to cached versions of the site, formed by the search engine’s latest indexing of that page. 

 

Additionally, Google indexes some file types, being able to show users PDFs, Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, PowerPoint presentations, certain Flash multimedia content, and plain text files. Users can also activate “SafeSearch”, a filtering technology aimed at preventing explicit and pornographic content from appearing in search results. Despite Google search’s immense index, sources generally assume that Google is only indexing less than 5% of the total Internet, with the rest belonging to the deep web, inaccessible through its search tools. 

 

In 2012, Google changed its search indexing tools to demote sites that had been accused of piracy. In October 2016, Gary Illyes, a webmaster trends analyst with Google, announced that the search engine would be making a separate, primary web index dedicated for mobile devices, with a secondary, less up-to-date index for desktop use. The change was a response to the continued growth in mobile usage, and a push for web developers to adopt a mobile-friendly version of their websites.   In December 2017, Google began rolling out the change, having already done so for multiple websites.   Caffeine” search architecture upgrade In August 2009, Google invited web developers to test a new search architecture, codenamed “Caffeine”, and give their feedback. The new architecture provided no visual differences in the user interface, but added significant speed improvements and a new “under-the-hood” indexing infrastructure. The move was interpreted in some quarters as a response to Microsoft’s recent release of an upgraded version of its own search service, renamed Bing, as well as the launch of Wolfram Alpha, a new search engine based on “computational knowledge”. Google announced completion of “Caffeine” on June 8, 2010, claiming 50% fresher results due to continuous updating of its index. With “Caffeine”, Google moved its back-end indexing system away from MapReduce and onto Bigtable, the company’s distributed database platform.

 

“Medic” search algorithm update In August 2018, Danny Sullivan from Google announced a broad core algorithm update. As per current analysis done by the industry leaders Search Engine Watch and Search Engine Land, the update was to drop down the medical and health-related websites that were not user friendly and were not providing good user experience. This is why the industry experts named it “Medic”. Google reserves very high standards for YMYL (Your Money or Your Life) pages. This is because misinformation can affect users financially, physically, or emotionally. Therefore, the update targeted particularly those YMYL pages that have low-quality content and misinformation. This resulted in the algorithm targeting health and medical-related websites more than others.

 

However, many other websites from other industries were also negatively affected. Google Search consists of a series of localized websites. The largest of those, the google.com site, is the top most-visited website in the world. Some of its features include a definition link for most searches including dictionary words, the number of results you got on your search, links to other searches (e.g. for words that Google believes to be misspelled, it provides a link to the search results using its proposed spelling), the ability to filter results to a date range, and many more.

BLOGS AND BLOGGING

A blog (a truncation of “weblog”) is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries (posts). Posts are typically displayed in reverse chronological order, so that the most recent post appears first, at the top of the web page. Until 2009, blogs were usually the work of a single individual, citation needed] occasionally of a small group, and often covered a single subject or topic.


In the 2010s, “multi-author blogs” (MABs) emerged, featuring the writing of multiple authors and sometimes professionally edited. MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, universities, think tanks, advocacy groups, and similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic. The rise of Twitter and other “microblogging” systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs into the news media. Blog can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog.


The emergence and growth of blogs in the late 1990s coincided with the advent of web publishing tools that facilitated the posting of content by non-technical users who did not have much experience with HTML or computer programming. Previously, a knowledge of such technologies as HTML and File Transfer Protocol had been required to publish content on the Web, and early Web users therefore tended to be hackers and computer enthusiasts. In the 2010s, the majority are interactive Web 2.0 websites, allowing visitors to leave online comments, and it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites. In that sense, blogging can be seen as a form of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers not only produce content to post on their blogs but also often build social relations with their readers and other bloggers. However, there are high-readership blogs which do not allow comments.

  

Many blogs provide commentary on a particular subject or topic, ranging from philosophy, religion, and arts to science, politics, and sports. Others function as more personal online diaries or online brand advertising of a particular individual or company. A typical blog combines text, digital images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media related to its topic. The ability of readers to leave publicly viewable comments, and interact with other commenters, is an important contribution to the popularity of many blogs. However, blog owners or authors often moderate and filter online comments to remove hate speech or other offensive content. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art (art blogs), photographs (photoblogs), videos (video blogs or “vlogs”), music (MP3 blogs), and audio (podcasts). In education, blogs can be used as instructional resources; these are referred to as edublogs.  Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring very short posts.

 ‘Blog’ and ‘blogging’ are now loosely used for content creation and sharing on social media, especially when the content is long-form and one creates and shares content on regular basis. So, one could be maintaining a blog on Facebook or blogging on Instagram.


On February 16, 2011, there were over 156 million public blogs in existence. On February 20, 2014, there were around 172 million Tumblr and 75.8 million WordPress blogs in existence worldwide. According to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging service used today. However, Blogger does not offer public statistics. Technorati lists 1.3 million blogs as of February 22, 2014.


                  TYPES OF BLOG

 There are many different types of blogs, differing not only in the type of content, but also in the way that content is delivered or written.


                 PERSONAL BLOGS

  The personal blog is an ongoing online diary or commentary written by an individual, rather than a corporation or organization. While the vast majority of personal blogs attract very few readers, other than the blogger’s immediate family and friends, a small number of personal blogs have become popular, to the point that they have attracted lucrative advertising sponsorship. A tiny number of personal bloggers have become famous, both in the online community and in the real world.


    COLLABORATIVE BLOGS OR GROUP BLOGS

A type of weblog in which posts are written and published by more than one author. The majority of high-profile collaborative blogs are organised according to a single uniting theme, such as politics, technology or advocacy. In recent years, the blogosphere has seen the emergence and growing popularity of more collaborative efforts, often set up by already established bloggers wishing to pool time and resources, both to reduce the pressure of maintaining a popular website and to attract a larger readership.


                 MICRO BLOGGING

  Micro blogging is the practice of posting small pieces of digital content which could be text, pictures, links, short videos, or other media on the Internet. Micro blogging offers a portable communication mode that feels organic and spontaneous to many users. It has captured the public imagination, in part because the short posts are easy to read on the go or when waiting. Friends use it to keep in touch, business associates use it to coordinate meetings or share useful resources, and celebrities and politicians (or their publicists) micro blog about concert dates, lectures, book releases, or tour schedules.

   A wide and growing range of add-on tools enables sophisticated updates and interaction with other applications. The resulting profusion of functionality is helping to define new possibilities for this type of communication. Examples of these include Twitter, Facebook, Tumblr and, by far the largest, Weibo.


   CORPORATE AND ORGANIZATIONAL BLOGS

  A blog can be private, as in most cases, or it can be for business or not-for-profit organization or government purposes. Blogs used internally, and only available to employees via an Intranet are called corporate blogs. Companies use internal corporate blogs enhance the communication, culture and employee engagement in a corporation.

   Internal corporate blogs can be used to communicate news about company policies or procedures, build employee esprit de corps and improve morale. Companies and other organizations also use external, publicly accessible blogs for marketing, branding, or public relations purposes. Some organizations have a blog authored by their executive; in practice, many of these executive blog posts are penned by a ghostwriter, who makes posts in the style of the credited author. Similar blogs for clubs and societies are called club blogs, group blogs, or by similar names; typical use is to inform members and other interested parties of club and member activities.


                 AGGREGATED BLOGS

 Individuals or organization may aggregate selected feeds on specific topic, product or service and provide combined view for its readers. This allows readers to concentrate on reading instead of searching for quality on-topic content and managing subscriptions. Many such aggregation called planets from name of Planet (software) that perform such aggregation, hosting sites usually have planet. subdomain in domain name (like http://planet.gnome.org/).


                   BY GENRE

  Some blogs focus on a particular subject, such as political blogs, journalism blogs, health blogs, travel blogs (also known as travelogs), gardening blogs, house blogs, Book Blogs, fashion blogs, beauty blogs, lifestyle blogs, party blogs, wedding blogs, photography blogs, project blogs, psychology blogs, sociology blogs, education blogs, niche blogs, classical music blogs, quizzing blogs, legal blogs (often referred to as a blawgs), or dreamlogs. How-to/Tutorial blogs are becoming increasing popular.

WIKIPEDIA

 Wikipedia is a multilingual open online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through open collaboration and a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. Wikipedia is the largest and most-read reference work in history. It is consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of 2022, Wikipedia was ranked the 10th most popular site.It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through donations.


  On January 15, 2001, Jimmy Wales[6] and Larry Sanger launched Wikipedia; Sanger coined its name as a portmanteau of “wiki” and “encyclopedia.” Wales was influenced by the “spontaneous order” ideas associated with Friedrich Hayek and the Austrian School of economics, after being exposed to these ideas by Austrian economist and Mises Institute Senior Fellow Mark Thornton. Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 58 million articles, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month and more than 17 million edits per month (1.9 edits per second) as of November 2020. In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the “biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world.”


  Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.


   Its reliability was frequently criticized in the 2000s but has improved over time; it has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s. Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic has received substantial media attention. It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. Nevertheless, it has become an element of popular culture, with references in books, films, and academic studies. In April 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.


Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful. Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process. It was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia. Nupedia was initially licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but even before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman. Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia, while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a “feeder” project for Nupedia.


             LAUNCH AND GROWTH

  The domains wikipedia.com (later redirecting to wikipedia.org) and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001, and January 13, 2001, respectively, and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001 as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com, and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list. Its policy of “neutral point-of-view” was codified in its first few months. Otherwise, there were initially relatively few rules, and it operated independently of Nupedia. Bomis originally intended it as a business for profit.


    Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were created beginning in March 2003, with a total of 161 in use by the end of 2004. Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former’s servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing the Yongle Encyclopedia made during the Ming Dynasty in 1408, which had held the record for almost 600 years.


  Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control, users of the Spanish Wikipedia forked from Wikipedia to create Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002. Wales then announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and changed Wikipedia’s domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.


Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of editors, appears to have peaked around early 2007. Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800. A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project’s increasing exclusivity and resistance to change. Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called “low-hanging fruit” topics that clearly merit an article have already been created and built up extensively.


  In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, it lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.  The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend. 


  Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the study’s methodology. Two years later, in 2011, he acknowledged a slight decline, noting a decrease from “a little more than 36,000 writers” in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011.


   In the same interview, he also claimed the number of editors was “stable and sustainable”. A 2013 MIT Technology Review article, “The Decline of Wikipedia”, questioned this claim, revealing that since 2007, Wikipedia had lost a third of its volunteer editors, and that those remaining had focused increasingly on minutiae. In July 2012, The Atlantic reported that the number of administrators was also in decline. In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, Katherine Ward stated, “Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis.” The number of active English Wikipedia editors has remained steady after a long period of decline.


In January 2007, Wikipedia first became one of the ten most popular websites in the US, according to Comscore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, it was ranked #9, surpassing The New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January 2006, when Wikipedia ranked 33rd, with around 18.3 million unique visitors. As of March 2020, it ranked 13th in popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received eight billion page views every month.

  On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, “according to the ratings firm comScore”.  Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that have accumulated improvements piecemeal through “stigmergic accumulation”.


  On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours. More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced its content.


  On January 20, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia’s growth stalled, it “had lost nearly ten percent of its page views last year. There was a decline of about two billion between December 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by twelve percent, those of German version slid by 17 percent and the Japanese version lost nine percent.” Varma added, “While Wikipedia’s managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google’s Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users.”When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard’s Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society said that he suspected much of the page-view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, “If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don’t need to click [any further].” By the end of December 2016, Wikipedia was ranked the fifth most popular website globally.


  In January 2013, 274301 Wikipedia, an asteroid, was named after Wikipedia; in October 2014, Wikipedia was honored with the Wikipedia Monument; and, in July 2015, 106 of the 7,473 700-page volumes of Wikipedia became available as Print Wikipedia. In April 2019, an Israeli lunar lander, Beresheet, crash landed on the surface of the Moon carrying a copy of nearly all of the English Wikipedia engraved on thin nickel plates; experts say the plates likely survived the crash.  In June 2019, scientists reported that all 16 GB of article text from the English Wikipedia had been encoded into synthetic DNA.


                   RESTRICTIONS

  Due to Wikipedia’s increasing popularity, some editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions for certain cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article.  On the English Wikipedia, among others, particularly controversial, sensitive or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to varying degrees.


   A frequently vandalized article can be “semi-protected” or “extended confirmed protected”, meaning that only “autoconfirmed” or “extended confirmed” editors can modify it. A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators can make changes. A 2021 article in the Columbia Journalism Review identified Wikipedia’s page-protection policies as “[p]erhaps the most important” means at its disposal to “regulate its market of ideas”.


  In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, the German Wikipedia maintains “stable versions” of articles  which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the “pending changes” system in December 2012. Under this system, new and unregistered users’ edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published.


                REVIEW OF CHANGES

  Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that powers Wikipedia provides tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. Each article’s History page links to each revision. On most articles, anyone can undo others’ changes by clicking a link on the article’s History page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone registered may maintain a “watchlist” of articles that interest them so they can be notified of changes. “New pages patrol” is a process where newly created articles are checked for obvious problems.


  In 2003, economics Ph.D. student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki created a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favored “creative construction” over “creative destruction”.

E-COMMERCE

             

  The term electronic commerce (ecommerce) refers to a business model that allows companies and individuals to buy and sell goods and services over the Internet. Ecommerce operates in four major market segments and can be conducted over computers, tablets, smartphones, and other smart devices. Nearly every imaginable product and service is available through ecommerce transactions, including books, music, plane tickets, and financial services such as stock investing and online banking. As such, it is considered a very disruptive technology.


  As noted above, ecommerce is the process of buying and selling tangible products and services online. It involves more than one party along with the exchange of data or currency to process a transaction. It is part of the greater industry that is known as electronic business (ebusiness), which involves all of the processes required to run a company online Ecommerce has helped businesses (especially those with a narrow reach like small businesses) gain access to and establish a wider market presence by providing cheaper and more efficient distribution channels for their products or services. Target (TGT) supplemented its brick-and-mortar presence with an online store that allows customers to purchase everything from clothes and coffeemakers to toothpaste and action figures right from their homes.


  Ecommerce operates in all four of the following major market segments. These are:


1. Business to business (B2B), which is the direct sale of goods and services between businesses

2. Business to consumer (B2C), which involves sales between businesses and their customers

Consumer to consumer, which allows individuals to sell to one another, usually through a third-party site like eBay

3. Consumer to business, which lets individuals sell to businesses, such as an artist selling or licensing their artwork for use by a corporation1

4. Providing goods and services isn’t as easy as it may seem. It requires a lot of research about the products and services you wish to sell, the market, audience, competition, as well as expected business costs.


  Once that’s determined, you need to come up with a name and set up a legal structure, such as a corporation. Next, set up an ecommerce site with a payment gateway. For instance, a small business owner who runs a dress shop can set up a website promoting their clothing and other related products online and allow customers to make payments with a credit card or through a payment processing service, such as paypal.


            SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

  Ecommerce has changed the way people shop and consume products and services. More and more people are turning to their computers and smart devices to order goods, which can easily be delivered to their homes. As such, it has disrupted the retail landscape. Amazon and Alibaba have gained considerable popularity, forcing traditional retailers to make changes to the way they do business.


  But that’s not all. Not to be outdone, individual sellers have increasingly engaged in e-commerce transactions via their own personal websites. And digital marketplaces such as eBay or Etsy serve as exchanges where multitudes of buyers and sellers come together to conduct business.


              HISTORY OF E-COMMERCE

  Most of us have shopped online for something at some point, which means we’ve taken part in ecommerce. So it goes without saying that ecommerce is everywhere. But very few people may know that ecommerce has a history that goes back before the internet began Ecommerce actually goes back to the 1960s when companies used an electronic system called the Electronic Data Interchange to facilitate the transfer of documents. But it wasn’t until 1994 that the very first transaction. took place. This involved the sale of a CD between friends through an online retail website called NetMarket.


   The industry has gone through so many changes since then, resulting in a great deal of evolution. Traditional brick-and-mortar retailers were forced to embrace new technology in order to stay afloat as companies like Alibaba, Amazon, eBay, and Etsy became household names. These companies created a virtual marketplace for goods and services that consumers can easily access.


  New technology continues to make it easier for people to do their online shopping. People can connect with businesses through smartphones and other devices and by downloading apps to make purchases. The introduction of free shipping, which reduces costs for consumers, has also helped increase the popularity of the ecommerce industry


     ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ECOMMERCE

  E-commerce offers consumers the following advantage:


           INCREASED SELECTION

  Many stores offer a wider array of products online than they carry in their brick-and-mortar counterparts. And many stores that solely exist online may offer consumers exclusive inventory that is unavailable elsewhere.

But there are certain drawbacks that come with ecommerce sites, too. The disadvantages include:


          LIMITED CUSTOMER SERVICE

  If you shop online for a computer, you cannot simply ask an employee to demonstrate a particular model’s features in person. And although some websites let you chat online with a staff member, this is not a typical practice.


        LACK OF INSTANT GRATIFICATION

  When you buy an item online, you must wait for it to be shipped to your home or office. However, e-tailers like Amazon make the waiting game a little bit less painful by offering same-day delivery as a premium option for select products.


        INABILITY TO TOUCH PRODUCTS

  Online images do not necessarily convey the whole story about an item, and so e-commerce purchases can be unsatisfying when the products received do not match consumer expectations. Case in point: an item of clothing may be made from shoddier fabric than its online image indicates.


                  PROS OF E—COMMERCE

1. Is convenient

2. Offers a wider selection of goods and services


                 CONS OF E–COMMERCE

1. Limited customer service

2. Lacks instant gratification

3. Products can’t been seen or handled until delivered


           EXAMPLE OF E-COMMERCE

  Amazon is a behemoth in the ecommerce space. In fact, it is the world’s largest online retailer and continues to grow. As such, it is a huge disrupter in the retail industry, forcing some major retailers to rethink their strategies and shift their focus.


 The company was launched its business with an ecommerce-based model of online sales and product delivery. It was founded by Jeff Bezos in 1994 as an online bookstore but has since expanded to include everything from clothing to housewares, power tools to food and drinks, and electronics.


  Company sales increased by 38% in 2020 from the previous year, totaling $386.1 billion compared to $280.5 billion in 2019. Amazon’s operating income also jumped to $22.9 billion for the 2020 fiscal year from $14.5 billion in 2019. Net income rose from $11.6 billion in 2019 to $21.3 billion by the end of 2020.5

   The company also expanded beyond ecommerce, providing cloud storage services, video and music streaming, electronic devices (such as Alexa, the personal assistant, and its Fire TV digital media player).


      WHAT IS AN E-COMMERCE WEBSITE?

An ecommerce website is any site that allows you to buy and sell products and services online. Companies like Amazon and Alibaba are examples of ecommerce websites.


      WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN  E-COMMERCE AND E-BUSINESS?

 Ecommerce involves the purchase and sale of goods and services online and is actually just one part of an ebusiness. An ebusiness involves the entire process of running a company online. Put simply, it’s all of the activity that takes place with an online business.


                 THE BOTTOM LINE

  Ecommerce is just one part of running an ebusiness. While the latter involves the entire process of running a business online, ecommerce simply refers to the sale of goods and services via the internet. Ecommerce companies like Amazon, Alibaba, and eBay have changed the way the retail industry works, forcing major, traditional retailers to change the way they do business.


  If starting an ecommerce site is something you’re considering, make sure you do your research before you start. And make sure you start with small, narrow focus to ensure that you have room to grow.

MASS COMMUNICATION

MEANING OF MASS COMMUNICATION

Mass Communication is defined as any mechanical device that multiples messages and takes it to a large number of people simultaneously.  In addition to all these types of communication we also indulge in yet another level of communication when we read newspapers, magazines or books, listen to radio or watch TV. As the message is communicated to a very large number of people or to a mass of people, it is called Mass communication.


Mass communication is unique and different from interpersonal communication as it is a special kind of communication in which the nature of the audience and the feedback is different from that of interpersonal communication.

Mass communication is the term used to describe the academic study of various means by which individuals and entities relay information to large segments of the population all at once through mass media.


Mass Communication can also be defined as ‘a process whereby mass produced messages are transmitted to large, anonymous and heterogeneous masses of receivers’. By ‘mass produced’ we mean putting the content or message of mass communication in a form suitable to be distributed to large masses of people.

‘Heterogeneous’ means that the individual members of the mass are from a wide variety of the society, while, ‘Anonymous’ means the individuals in the mass do not know each other. The source or sender of message in mass communication does not know the individual members of the mass.  Also the receivers in mass communication are physically separated from each other and share no physical proximity.

Finally, the individual members forming a mass are not united. They have no social organization and no customs and traditions, no established sets of rules, no structure or status role and no established leadership.

THE HISTORY OF MASS COMMUNICATION

Mass communications history is fairly short, although the various forms of mass media that have developed over the years have made a tremendous impression on the technological, political, economic, social and cultural trends of every nation. Mass communications, defined as communication reaching large numbers of people, primarily developed in just the last 500 years. Earlier developments, along with technological advances and social change, helped spark the demand and innovation necessary for creating today’s mass media.


Books are the oldest of the media, with the first known book written in Egypt around 1400 B.C. Books were not reproduced for the masses, however, until the invention of the printing press in 1456.


Newspapers are otherwise considered to be the oldest mass medium. News-sheets appeared as early as 100 B.C. in Rome and as political tracts and pamphlets roughly 400 to 500 years ago. Nonetheless, the first regular newspapers did not debut until the 1600s. Magazine development was also slow. Derived from the French word “magasin”, the first English magazine did not appear until 1704.


The electronic media developed more quickly. Radio emerged as a mass medium in the 1920s, thanks to the growing popularity of mass entertainment and technological advances stemming from the development of the telegraph, telephone and the wireless.

A worldwide race to add pictures then ensued, with the creation of television considered to be one of the most important inventions of the twentieth century.


Television hit its stride in the 1940s, followed by cable television and satellite communications in the latter half of the century. The newest mass medium is the Internet, which has revolutionized communications. Over the years, each new medium has emerged to supplement and compete with the traditional media. Trends have included specialization, globalization, consolidation and convergence.


Throughout their short history, the mass media have had a tremendous impact on the political, social, economic and cultural trends of every country. The media have been credited with such advances as the rise in literacy and the distribution of the arts, while shaping political systems and promoting democracy. Mass media advertising has become a vital element of the capitalist economic system. And societies have come together thanks to the expanding reach of modern communications. On the other hand, governments in most nations have, at some point, exerted various levels of control over the media. The mass media have been blamed for misleading consumers, voters and children with political propaganda and advertising, while encouraging violence,  indecency, and an erosion of cultural values.

CHARACTERISTICS OF MASS COMMUNICATION

1.       Directs messages toward relatively large, heterogeneous and anonymous audience.


2.       Messages are transmitted publicly no privacy.

 

3.        Short duration message for immediate consumption.


4.       Feedback is indirect, non-existent or delayed.

 

5.       Cost per exposure per individual is minimum.


6.        Source belongs to organization or institutions.


7.       Mostly one way.


8.       Involves good deal of selection that is, medium chooses its audience newspaper for literates and audience choose media poor, illiterates select radio.


9.       There is need for fewer media to reach vast and widespread audience because of wide reach of each.


10.    Communication is done by social institutions which are responsive to the environment in which they operate.

THE MASS MEDIA

THE INTRENET AND MEDIA CONVERGENCE

The vast network of telephone and cable lines, wireless connections, and satellite systems designed to link and carry digital information worldwide was initially described as an information superhighway. This description implied that the goal of the Internet was to build a new media network a new superhighway to replace traditional media (e.g., books, newspapers, television, and radio) .

 

 

The old highway system. In many ways, the original description of the Internet has turned out to be true. The Internet has expanded dramatically from its initial establishment in the 1960s to an enormous media powerhouse that encompasses but has not replaced all other media today. On this note , The internet is a double edge sword available globally making it possible for us to connect and share information.  The innovation of digital communication central to the development of the first computers in the 1940s enables all media content to be created in the same basic way, which makes media convergence, the technological merging of content in different mass media, possible.

 

In recent years, the Internet has really become the hub for convergence, a place where music, television shows, radio stations, newspapers, magazines, books, games, and movies are created, distributed, and presented. Although convergence initially happened on desktop computers, the popularity of notebook computers and then the introduction of smartphones and tablets have hastened the pace of media convergence and made the idea of accessing any media content, anywhere, a reality.

MEDIA CONVERGES ON PCS AND TVS

First there was the telephone, invented in the 1870s. Then came radio in the 1920s, TV in the 1950s, and eventually the personal computer in the 1970s. Each device had its own unique and distinct function. Aside from a few exceptions, like the clock radio (a hybrid device popular since the 1950s), that was how electronic devices worked.

The rise of the personal computer industry in the mid-1970s first opened the possibility for unprecedented technological convergence. A New York Times article on the new “home computers” in 1978 noted that “the long-predicted convergence of such consumer electronic products as television sets, videotape recorders, video games, stereo sound systems and the coming video-disk machines into a computer-based home information-entertainment center is getting closer.

 However, PC-based convergence didn’t truly materialize until a few decades later, when broadband Internet connections improved the multimedia capabilities of computers.


By the early 2000s, computers connected to the Internet allowed an array of digital media to converge in one space and be easily shared. A user can now access television shows, movies, music, books, games, newspapers, magazines, and lots of other Web content on a computer. And with Skype, iChat, and other live voice and video software, PCs can replace landline telephones. Other devices, like iPods, quickly capitalized on the Internet’s ability to distribute such content and were adapted to play and exhibit multiple media content forms.

Media are also converging on our television sets, as the electronics industry manufactures Internet-ready TVs. Video game consoles like the Xbox, Wii, and PS4, and set-top devices like Apple TV, Google Chromecast, Roku, and Amazon Fire TV, offer additional entertainment content access via their Internet connections. In the early years of the Web, people would choose only one gateway to the Internet and media content, usually a computer or a television.

 

Today, however, wireless networks and the recent technological developments in various media devices mean that consumers regularly use more than one avenue to access all types of media content.


MOBILE DEVICES PROPEL CONVERGENCE

Mobile telephones have been around for decades (like the giant “brick” mobile phones of the 1970s and 1980s), but the smartphones of the twenty-first century are substantially different creatures. Introduced in 2002, the BlackBerry was the first popular Internet-capable smartphone in the United States. Users’ ability to check their e-mail messages at any time created addictive e-mail behavior and earned the phones their “Crackberry” nickname.

 

Convergence on mobile phones took another big leap in 2007 with Apple’s introduction of the iPhone, which combined qualities of its iPod digital music player and telephone and Internet service, all accessed through a sleek touchscreen. The next year, Apple opened its App Store, featuring free and low-cost software applications for the iPhone (and the iPod Touch and, later, the iPad) created by third-party developers, vastly increasing the utility of the iPhone. By 2015, there were about 1.4 million apps available to do thousands of things on Apple devices—from playing interactive games to finding locations with a GPS or using the iPhone like a carpenter’s level.

In 2008, the first smartphone to run on Google’s competing Android platform was released. By 2015, Android phones (sold by companies such as Samsung, HTC, LG, and Motorola, and supported by the Google Play app market and the Amazon Appstore) held 53.2 percent of the smartphone market share in the United States, while Apple’s iPhone had a 41.3 percent share; Microsoft and BlackBerry smartphones constituted the remainder of the market.18 The precipitous drop of the BlackBerry’s market standing in just ten years (the company was late to add touchscreens and apps to its phones) illustrates the tumultuous competition in mobile devices. It also illustrates how apps and the ability to consume all types of media content on the go have surpassed voice call quality to become the most important feature to consumers purchasing a phone today.

In 2010, Apple introduced the iPad, a tablet computer suitable for reading magazines, newspapers, and books; watching video; and using visual applications. The tablets became Apple’s fastest-growing product line, selling at a rate of twenty-five million a year. Apple added cameras, faster graphics, and a thinner design to subsequent generations of the iPad, as companies like Samsung (Galaxy), Amazon (Kindle Fire), Microsoft (Surface), and Google (Nexus) rolled out competing tablets.

THE IMPACT OF MEDIA CONVERGENCE AND MOBILE MEDIA


Convergence of media content and technology has forever changed our relationship with media. Today, media consumption is mobile and flexible; we don’t have to miss out on media content just because we weren’t home in time to catch a show, didn’t find the book at the bookstore, or forgot to buy the newspaper yesterday. Increasingly,  demand access to media when we want it, where we want it, and in multiple formats. In order to satisfy those demands and to stay relevant in such a converged world, tradi￾tional media companies have had to dramatically change their approach to media content and their business models.

Our Changing relationship with the Media. 

 

The merging of all media onto one device, such as a tablet or smartphone, blurs the distinctions of what used to be separate media. For example, USA Today (a newspaper) and CBS News (network television news) used to deliver the news in completely different formats, but today their Web forms look quite similar, with listings of headlines, rankings of the most  popular stories, local weather forecasts, photo galleries, and video. With the Amazon Kindle, on which one can read books, newspapers, and magazines, new forms like the Kindle Single challenge old categories.

 

Are the fictional Kindle Singles novellas, or are they more like the stories found in literary magazines? And what about the investigative reports released as Kindle Singles? Should they be considered long-form journalism, or are they closer to nonfiction books? Is listening to an hour-long archived episode of public radio’s This American Life on an iPod more like experiencing a radio program or more like an audio book? (It turns out you can listen to that show on the radio, as a downloadable podcast, as a Web stream, on mobile apps, or purchased on a USB drive or on a CD.

 

THE CHANGING ECONOMICS OF MEDIA  AND THE INTERNET

The digital turn in the mass media has profoundly changed the economics of the Internet. Since the advent of Napster in 1999, which brought (illegal) file sharing to the music industry, each media industry has struggled to rethink how to distribute its content for the digital age.

The content itself is still important people still want quality news, television, movies, music, and games—but they want it in digital formats and for mobile devices.
Apple’s response to Napster established the new media economics. The late Apple CEO Steve Jobs struck a deal with the music industry. Apple would provide a new market for music on the iTunes store, selling digital music customers could play on their iPods (and later on their iPhones and iPads). In return, Apple got a 30 percent cut of the revenue for all music sales on iTunes, simply for being the “pipes” that delivered the music. As music stores went out of business all across America, Apple sold billions of songs and hundreds of millions of iPods, all
without requiring a large chain of retail stores.

Amazon started as a more traditional online retailer, taking orders online and delivering merchandise from its warehouses. As books took the turn into the digital era, Amazon created its own device, the Kindle, and followed Apple’s model. Amazon started selling e-books, taking its cut for delivering the content. Along the way, Amazon and Apple (and Google through its Android apps) have become leading media companies. They don’t make the content (although Amazon is now publishing books, too, and Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos purchased the Washington Post in 2013), but they are among the top digital distributors of books, newspapers, magazines, music, television, movies, and games.

MASS MEDIA AND GLOBALIZATION

  The mass media are seen today as playing a key role in enhancing globalization, facilitating culture exchange and multiple flows of information and image between countries through international news broadcasts, television programming, new  technologies, film and music. If before the 1990’s mainstream media systems in most countries of the world were relatively national in scope, since then most communication media have become increasingly global, extending their reach beyond the nation-state to conquer audiences worldwide. 

 

International flows of information have been largely assisted by the development of global capitalism, new technologies and the increasing commercialisation of global television, which has occurred as a consequence of the deregulation policies adopted by various countries in Europe and the US in order to permit the proliferation of cable and satellite channels.

Globalization theorists have discussed how the cultural dimension of globalization has exercised a profound impact on the whole globalization process. The rapid expansion of global communications in the 21st century can be traced back to the mechanical advancements of technologies during the course of the 18th and 19th centuries, which started mainly with the invention of the telegraph in 1837, and included the growth in postal services, cross-border telephone and radio communications and the creation of a modern mass circulation press in Europe.

 

 It was however the evolution of technologies capable of transmitting messages via electromagnetic waves that marked a turning point in advancing the globalization of communications. The emergence of international news agencies in the 19th century, such as Reuters, paved the way for the beginnings of a global system of codification. Nonetheless, it was not until the 1960’s, with the launch of the first geo-stationary communication satellites, that communication by electromagnetic transmission became fully global, thus making the globalization of communications a distinctive phenomena of the 20th century.

POPULAR CULTURE AND THE MEDIA

Historically, mass pop culture has been fostered by an active and taste making mass media that introduces and encourages the adoption of certain trends. Although they are similar in some ways to the widespread media gatekeepers .

“Gatekeepers”, tastemakers differ in that they are most influential when the mass media is relatively small and concentrated. When only a few publications or programs reach millions of people, their writers and editors are highly influential. Along with encouraging a mass audience to see (or skip) certain movies, television shows, video games, books, or fashion trends, people use taste making to create demand for new products. Companies often turn to advertising firms to help create public hunger for an object that may have not even existed 6 months before. In the 1880s, when George Eastman developed the Kodak camera for personal use, photography was most practiced by professionals. “Though the Kodak was relatively cheap and easy to use, most Americans didn’t see the need for a camera; they had no sense that there was any value in visually documenting their lives,” noted New Yorker writer James Surowiecki (Surowiecki, 2003). Kodak became a wildly successful company not because Eastman was good at selling cameras, but because he understood that what he really had to sell was photography.

 

Apple Inc. is a modern master of this technique. By leaking just enough information about a new product to cause curiosity, the technology company ensures that people will be waiting excitedly for an official release.
Tastemakers help keep culture vital by introducing the public to new ideas, music, programs, or products, but tastemakers are not immune to outside influence. In the traditional media model, large media companies set aside large advertising budgets to promote their most promising projects; tastemakers buzz about “the next big thing,” and obscure or niche works can get lost in the shuffle.

REGULATION OF THE MEDIA

The U.S. federal government has long had its hand in media regulation. Media in all their forms have been under governmental jurisdiction since the early 1900s. Since that time, regulatory efforts have transformed as new forms of media have emerged and expanded their markets to larger audiences.

 

Today, the FCC continues to hold the primary responsibility for regulating media outlets, with the FTC taking on a smaller role. Although each commission holds different roles and duties, the overall purpose of governmental control remains to establish and bring order to the media industry while ensuring the promulgation of the public good. This section examines the modern duties of both commissions.

LAWS AND ETHICS OF COMMUNICATION

Media law has been a much-debated topic ever since the first U.S. media industry laws appeared in the early 1900s. The contention surrounding media law largely stems from the liberties guaranteed under the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which includes the freedom of the press.
Generally speaking, media law comprises two areas: telecommunications law, which regulates radio and television broadcasts, and print law, which addresses publications such as books, newspapers, and magazines.

Despite differences between the two areas, many media laws involve First Amendment protections. This section explores several areas of media law: privacy, libel and slander, copyright and intellectual property, freedom of information, and equal time and coverage.

In 1974, Congress passed the Privacy Act, which “protects records that can be retrieved by personal identifiers such as a name, social security number, or other identifying number or symbol (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services).” This act also regulates how agencies can collect, store, and use information and requires agencies to tell individuals when they are collecting information about them. Designed to ensure that all First Amendment guarantees remain honored, the act requires all public and private agencies to function within its
boundaries.

Under the Privacy Act, media personnel must be careful to avoid revealing certain information about an individual without his or her permission, even if that portrayal is factually accurate. Privacy laws, including the Privacy Act, “limit…your ability to publish private facts about someone and recognize…an individual’s right to stop you from using his or her name, likeness, and other personal attributes for certain exploitative purposes (Citizen Media Law Project).” 

 

Members of the media can avoid the pitfalls of privacy laws by maintaining a professional relationship with a community. To avoid liability, journalists and other media professionals are encouraged to report or comment only on “matters of legitimate public interest and only portray people who have a reasonable relationship to [their] topic (Citizen Media Law Project).” In 2005, a legal dispute arose between congressional aides Robert Steinbuch and Jessica Cutler. Steinbuch sued Cutler for publishing information about their intimate relationship; however, the case was dismissed when the court decided that Cutler had only provided facts that were already publicly known (Citizen Media Law Project).

COPYRIGHT AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

Copyright laws fall under federal jurisdiction and are, therefore, identical across the country. “Newspapers”, Congress first established U.S. copyright and patent protections in 1790 and, despite revisions and updates, has maintained some form of copyright law to this day. With coverage of a wide range of materials, copyright law encompasses “almost all creative work that can be written down or otherwise captured in a tangible medium (Citizen Media Law Project).” This includes literary works; musical works; dramatic works; pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works; motion pictures and other audiovisual works; sound recordings; and even architectural works. Once a work has achieved copyright, the copyright owner must grant permission for that work to be legally reproduced. After a certain number of years, a copyright expires and the work enters the public domain.

Copyright does not, however, protect facts. This is of particular importance for news media. Despite the length of time it takes to uncover facts, no individual or company can own them. Anyone may repeat facts as long as that person does not copy the written story or broadcast in which those facts were communicated.
Intellectual property law protects “products of the mind,” including copyrights, patents, open licenses, trademarks, trade secrets, URLs, domain names, and even components of television programs (as David Letterman found out when he moved from NBC to CBS, and was forced to leave certain aspects of his TV show behind). Intellectual property law generally follows the same guidelines as copyright law, and the associated legislation seeks “to encourage innovation and creativity, with an ultimate aim of promoting a general benefit to society (Citizen Media Law Project).

FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT

President Lyndon B. Johnson first signed the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) into law in 1966. By requiring full or partial disclosure of U.S. government information and documents, the act “helps the public keep track of its government’s actions, from the campaign expenditures of city commission candidates to federal agencies’ management of billions of dollars in tax revenues (Citizen Media Law Project).” Because it allows everyone access to federal documents and information that otherwise would go unreleased, FOIA is particularly important for those working in the news media.

 

Although the act covers a large range of agencies, some offices are exempt from FOIA. The act provides access to the public records of the executive branch of the U. S. government but does not include documents from the current president, Congress, or the judicial branch (Citizen Media Law Project). Because FOIA pertains to individuals and information in high levels of government, the process of accessing information can be complicated. Those who are interested must become skilled at navigating the complex set of procedures to offer citizens accurate information. Although FOIA allows any person for any reason access to the records, journalists who work for mainstream media organizations often receive perks such as the waiving of fees and expedited processing (Citizen Media Law Project).

THE DIGITAL MILLENNIUM COPYRIGHT ACT

In 1998, Congress passed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) to bring order to the then-largely unregulated online arena. As discussed in Chapter 13 “Economics of Mass Media”, the DMCA prohibits individuals from either circumventing access-control measures or trafficking devices that may help others circumvent copyright measures. Under this act, it is illegal to use code-cracking devices to illegally copy software, and websites are required to take down material that infringes on copyrights. (You’ve experienced this regulation yourself if you’ve ever visited YouTube or Google Video and found that a video has been removed due to copyright claims.)

The DMCA does allow webcasting (the broadcasting of media over the Internet) as long as webcasters pay licensing fees to the companies that own the material. This allows sites such as Hulu to legally stream movies and TV shows to viewers. The DMCA also protects institutes of higher education, including distance-learning programs, from certain copyright liabilities (Online Institute for Cyberspace Law and Policy).

One of the most controversial aspects of the DMCA is that, while it requires websites to remove copyrighted material, it does not require websites to monitor their content. A 3-year-long court battle between media giant Viacom and the Google-owned website YouTube was recently waged over this factor. Viacom argued that YouTube infringed on its rights by hosting copyrighted videos. Google responded that while YouTube may include copyrighted material, it is not required to scan every user-uploaded video for copyright infringement. When a claim is brought against a YouTube video, the video is removed beyond that, the website is not responsible for content. The judge ruled in favor of Google, stating that it was indeed protected under the DMCA. While many saw this as a victory for Internet freedom, others warned that it would have future consequences for the protection .

SPEECH COMMUNICATION

Speech , being an aspect of communication fulfills the function of communication as other aspects and is susceptible to similar barriers as well. it can be very effective but it can also be badly executed. Speech is a subset of verbal communication, meaning that it relies heavily on words to pass its message. 

However it is markedly differently from writing which is also dependent on words. in general  speech as the following characteristics.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPEECH COMMUNICATION

IT IS SPOKEN
Speech requires the use of human voice complemented by auditory sound organ. whether in interpersonal, group or public situation, speech always involves speaking and listening. it is a primary language activity that can be carried out without any formal education. All that is required is that the person involved (sender/receiver) should belong to the same speech community and should share a common field of experience to facilitate common perception and meaning sharing.

Listening is of primary importance as communication maybe hindered if the receiver is not listening effectively. Effective listening requires that one pay attention to the linguistic elements in use as well as the non-verbal elements. it is absolutely important that the listener pays attention to head movement, gesture, gait and voice quality for differences in inflection like pitch, stress etc. that contribute significantly to meaning modification.

 

SPEECH EMPLOYS NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION

We all use our body parts besides the voice to form our meaning e.g the distance between two speaker say something about their relationship. In organization, the space allocated to an officer ,the furnishing of that space as well as the physical location of that space says much about the person standing within the organization.
We also use colors and other emblems to communicate a lot of information in our society e.g traffic lights and clothing . for speech to be effective , our words must align perfectly with our gesture and other nonverbal cues.

 

SPEECH REQUIRES IMMEDIATE FEEDBACK

When one writes ,one hopes that there will be a reader to complete the circuit, However one has no way of knowing whether indeed any one will ever read what one has written.

In  speech however,  we expect someone to listen and in practice, we often hold our peace  if it seems that no one is listening except in the case of soliloquies. Also we often seek reassurance from our interlocutors that they are listening while we speak. The response feedback is immediate and guaranteed whereas in written or mass communication it is often delayed sometimes non-existent.

 

SPEECH IS OFTEN REPETITIVE

For several reasons we usually repeat ourselves a lot when we speak . This is acceptable in speech but not usually in writing one reason is for emphasis another is to cater for all distractions in the environment this quality of speech allows for redundancy which refers to the use of more linguistic elements than is absolutely necessary for the expression of meaning.

 

SPEECH IS OFTEN FRAGMENTED AND LACKING IN ORGANISATION

Written communication uses full sentences, speech is based on utterances which could be single word, phrases or clauses, not necessarily sentences sometimes it is enough to simply make certain sounds that cannot even be classified as words in response to certain statements or questions.

Besides, while written communication is usually carefully organized to make wholistic sense, speech is often casual, haphazard,  yet intelligible. very often we jump from one subject to another while speaking where as in writing we stick to a single subject until we have clearly exhausted it before moving on to another.

 

SPEECH REQUIRES A MEASURES OF CONFIDENCE AND POSITIVE SELF CONCEPT

Whereas a frightened  person could write coherently and state his point explicitly, one needs to take a hold of one’s nerves to be able to communicate very well in speech. A lack of self-confidence could affect one’s memory in definite ways.
Speech delivery, especially to large audiences, can be a harrowing experience to one suffering from stage fright . it is therefore important that one takes step to shore up ones self-confidence to avoid disaster in speech communication.

 

SPEECH IMPEDIMENTS AFFECT COMMUNICATION

Impediments like stuttering or hearing deficiency could affect one’s quality of speech communication adversely .sometimes interference of one’s mother tongue on a second language could produce an accent that clearly identifies one as belonging to a certain ethnic group simply by one speech.

Besides certain speech mannerisms could affect one’s ability to communicate clearly in speech. These could be a result of inadequacy in ones linguistic ability or a function of one’s level of confidence, whatever the explanation they must not be allowed to affect one’s communicative competence negatively.

QUALITIES OF A GOOD SPEAKER

Most scholars would agree that what makes one a competent speaker is his ability to achieve his goals in a manner that ideally, maintain or enhance  the relationship in which it occurs. The following quality are worth noting:

 

PURPOSE
Every Communicator has a purpose when communicating this ranges from providing information to educating to entertaining or even for phatic communion whatever the purpose is whether stated or unstated, the competent communicator is one who does what is necessary to attain his purpose

 

FLEXIBILITY
To achieve the same purpose either with different audiences or with the same audience at different times or different circumstances one needs to adopt the right strategy that works knowing different approaches and selecting the most effective for different occasions is the hallmark of communicative competence .

 

APPROPRIATENESS
We deal with different audiences e.g, peers parents, teachers , superior/subordinates etc. in different situations celebrations ,lectures funerals ,worship setting , etc .Beginning with one dressing to one choice of discussions topics to our selections of approaches (methods) to our choice of linguistic items we need to make our choices suitable to the audience , the situations and the occasion otherwise we might end up offending our interlocutor or miscommunicating.

 

RELATIONAL COMPETENCE

People who are able to handle difficult situation e.g, managing conflicts giving ego support to others and providing comfort to relational partners proved to be successful communicators particularly when their skills match those of the people with whom they are communicating .

Empathy ( fellow-feeling ) is therefore an extremely important skills ,one need to try hard always to understand the other person’s point of view.  Good communicators take the perspective of others into consideration at all times.

 

COGNITIVE COMPLEXITY

This refers to the ability to construct a variety of framework for viewing an issue. This ability allows us to make sense of people using a variety of perspectives.  For instance, if a classmate seemed to be unhappy with you , one possibility is that his feelings are a response to something you have done it could also be that one someone else has upset him or that he may not even be offended but you are imputing offence because you are just being overly sensitive .

Without cognitive complexity one would just assume that one reason or another explain the situation and go ahead to act in a manner that in ones view, represent an appropriate response to once pre – supposition. This may impede rather than facilitates communication.

 

SELF MONITORING
Psychologist use the term self-monitoring to describe the process of paying attention to one’s behavior and using those observations to shape the way one behaves.
Self-monitors are able to separate a part of their consciousness and observe their behavior from a detached viewpoint making observation such as:
“I am making a fool of myself”
“I had better speak up now”
“This approach is working well I will keep it”

Although being too self-conscious can be problematic, low self monitors are more likely to over-estimate their own competence and less likely to recognize their shortcomings.

 

ORGANISATION

Skillful speakers organize their material in an orderly manner so as to enhance comprehension on the part of listeners. This requires some form of schema e.g, logic spatial order, order of importance, temporal sequence, cause and effects etc.
Besides, good speaker ensure that they keep within the time allowed whether it is a meeting, debate, or speech-making event,  it is important than one prepares adequately to ensure that one has just about enough material for the time allowed.  Too little will create a vacuum or invite rigmaroles while too much will lead to information overload and indecent haste,  resulting in inadequate treatment of the subject matter. Adequate preparation will take care of this.

ETHICS IN SPEECH COMMUNICATION

To speak ethically is to use your own original speech content. If you use any substantiating facts or passages from another, you must give appropriate attribution or credit as necessary. Ethical speakers are ones who do not plagiarize their material or try to pass off words and ideas from others as their own.
Ethical speakers do not deceive their audience. It can also be stated that ethical speakers do not distort or warp facts, or worse yet, disguise opinions as fact in order to argue their thesis or make their point.

 

FULL PREPARATION

Effective speakers are those who take the time to fully prepare their speeches, from the speech writing process to the delivery of the speech to the very clothes they wear for the speech. If you don’t prepare, it will show and ultimately affect your credibility as a speaker to your audience and colleagues. Respect your audience by taking thorough time to write, edit, review and rehearse your speech before presenting.

 

HONESTY

Honesty is an extension of the ethical goals of your speech. Don’t resort to falsehoods or opinions presented as facts to make your case. Come from a place of authenticity instead of deception. Your credibility can become damaged when it is revealed you have either lied or even just slightly bent the truth in your speeches.

 

NON-ABUSIVE LANGUAGE

Just as one shouldn’t intimidate his or her audience, one should refrain from abusive language when speaking in public. This means attacking your audience verbally, or, in a debate-style setting, even verbally attacking your opponent. Don’t resort to name-calling or bullying; rather, make your case through the use of compelling facts and anecdotes that can be substantiated.

PARA-LINGUISTIC ELEMENTS OF SPEECH

Paralanguage is the technical term for the voice cues that accompany spoken words. It is concerned with the sound of the voice and the range of meanings that people convey through their voices rather than the words they use.
The meaning of what you express is contained, in part, in the words you say, but how you say it also contains powerful meanings. For example, the word “Yes”, can completely convey different meanings, even in the exact same sentence, depending on how it is said whether it is spoken sincerely or sarcastically. The “how you say something is referred to as paralanguage, which includes your conscious or unconscious intonation, accent, pitch Opens in new window, pace, pause, silence, emphasis, word and syllable stress.
      

VOCAL CHARACTERISTICS
Are the pitch (The highness or lowness of your voice), volume (how loudly or softly you speak), rate (the speed at which you speak) and voice quality (how pleasant or unpleasant your voice sound). Each of these characteristics plays a part in the impression others have of you. For example, a loud voice is usually associated with aggressiveness; people who speak quickly are said to be nervous.


VOCAL INTERFERENCES

Are the sounds and words we use when we hesitate or are not sure of the right word. We all use the occasional “uh”, “er”, “well”, and “you know” to indicate that we are searching for the right word. But such interferences may become a problem when they pop up too frequently as they can interrupt your listener’s concentration and comprehension.


ELEMENTS OF PARALANGUAGE

                     PITCH
Pitch refers to the highness or lowness of the voice. It is similar to pitch on a musical scale.
  Higher pitches are usually associated with female voices, while lower pitches are associated with male voices. We also develop vocal stereotypes by which we associate low-pitched voices with strength, sexiness, and maturity. The high-pitched voices, we associate with helplessness, tension, and nervousness.

  Although individuals have a modal or habitual pitch that they use most frequently when we speaking, they also alter their pitch to reflect their mood and interest while communicating. For example, we often lower our pitch when sad and raise it when excited.
  In contrast, if we are bored, we may speak in a monotone that reflects our lack of interest. A lively animated pitch encourages interaction, whereas a monotone discourages it.
   It is the voice’s pitch that others use to determine whether you are making a statement or asking a question or whether you are expressing concern or conviction. Your pitch expresses your emotional state; for instance, it can communicate anger or annoyance, patience or tolerance.

                ARTICULATION
  Articulaton is the way you pronounce individual sounds. Oftentimes, during the course of person-to-person contact, the sounds of your speech are sharp and distinct.
   When you fail to utter a final sound (a final t or d, for example), fail to produce the sounds of words properly, or voice a sound in an unclear, imprecise way (as with these cases: come wimme versus come with me, dem versus them, idear versus idea), perception of your credibility is bound to slump.

               PRONUNCIATION
Pronunciation, however, is the way in which you pronounce or say a word. When you mispronounce a word, you may suffer a loss of credibility, and those listening to you may find it more difficult to make sense of what you are saying. Thus, while the focus of articulation is on the production of speech sounds, the focus of pronunciation is on whether you say the words themselves correctly.
  The sound attributes of articulation and pronunciation affect intelligibility as well as perceptions of credibility.

          HESITATION AND SILENCE
  We sometimes pause and hesitate in the middle of conversation when we run out of thoughts or are not sure the right words to say. We all use the occasional “uh”, “er”, “well”, and “you know” to indicate that we are searching for the right word. Hesitation can be broken down into:

FILLED PAUSES : also known as vocalized pauses such as “um”, “er”, “ah”, and “uh”; and
EMPTY PAUSES : , which consist of silence.
SILENCE is also a component of paralanguageOpens in new window that conveys meaning.

  Silent hesitation and Pauses belong to the component of paralinguistic system of language.
   They play a significant role in identifying speech units and in making sense out of them. Making a decision as to how to say something is connected with silent hesitation.
  Knowing when to pause is a critical skill. When nervous or tense, we may exhibit a tendency to fill all pauses, often by inserting meaningless sounds or phrases such as uh, you know, or okay in the effort to fill voids.
   Some experts also include to the list some speech mannerisms such as ‘by the way’, ‘incidentally’, ‘honest’, ‘before I forget’, ‘believe me’, ‘curiously enough’, etc. There are also feedback signals such as ‘good’ and ‘really. Hesitations occur within the speech utterance, as well as at the beginning and at the end. These pauses allow the speaker to collect his/her thoughts and also serve as signals for turn-taking within a face-to-face interaction.

AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

An audience analysis is when you consider all of the pertinent elements defining the makeup and demographic characteristics (also known as demographics) of your audience. From the Greek prefix demo (of the people), we come to understand that there are detailed accounts of human population characteristics, such as age, gender, education, occupation, language, ethnicity, culture, background knowledge, needs and interests, and previously held attitudes, beliefs, and values. Demographics are widely used by advertising and public relations professionals to analyze specific audiences so that their products or ideas will carry influence. However, all good public speakers consider the demographic characteristics of their audience, as well. It is the fundamental stage of preparing for your speech.


     CATEGORY OF AUDIENCE ANALYSIS
  No matter which of the above inquiry methods you choose to do your audience analysis, you will, at some point, need to direct your attention to the five “categories” of audience analysis. These are the five categories through which you will learn to better appreciate your audience.


         SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS
  The situational audience analysis category considers the situation for which your audience is gathered. This category is primarily concerned with why your audience is assembled in the first place.Are they willingly gathered to hear you speak? Have your audience members paid to hear you? Or, are your audience members literally “speech captives” who have somehow been socially or systematically coerced into hearing you? These factors are decisively important because they place a major responsibility upon you as a speaker, whichever is the case. The entire tone and agenda of your speech rests largely upon whether or not your audience even wants to hear from you.


  Many audiences are considered captive audiences in that they have no real choice regarding the matter of hearing a given speech. In general, these are some of the most difficult audiences to address because these members are being forced to listen to a message, and do not have the full exercise of their own free will. Consider for a moment when you have been called to a mandatory work meeting. Were you truly happy to listen to the speaker, in all honesty? Some might say “yes,” but usually most would rather be doing something else with their time. This is an important factor to keep in mind when preparing your speech: some people simply do not want to listen to a speech they believe is compulsory.


  The voluntary audience situation, in stark contrast, is completely different. A voluntary audience is willingly assembled to listen to a given message. As a rule, these audiences are much easier to address because they are interested in hearing the speech. To visualize how this works, reflect upon the last speech, concert, or show you’ve chosen to attend. While the event may or may not have lived up to your overall expectations, the very fact that you freely went to the occasion speaks volumes about your predisposition to listen to and perhaps even be persuaded by the information being presented.


  Sometimes audiences are mixed in their situational settings, too. Take the everyday classroom situation, for instance. While students choose to attend higher education, many people in the college classroom environment sadly feel as if they are still “trapped” in school and would rather be elsewhere. On the other hand, some students in college are truly there by choice, and attentively seek out knowledge from their teacher-mentors. What results from this mixed audience situation is a hybrid captive-voluntary audience, with those who are only partially interested in what is going on in the classroom and those who are genuinely involved. You literally get to hone your speech skills on both types of audiences, thereby learning a skill set that many never get to exercise. You should begin this wonderful opportunity by considering ways to inform, persuade, and humor a mixed situation audience. Think of it as a learning occasion, and you’ll do just fine

.

          DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS
The second category of audience analysis is demography. As mentioned before, demographics are literally a classification of the characteristics of the people. Whenever addressing an audience, it is generally a good idea to know about its age, gender, major, year in school, race, ethnicity, religious affiliation, et cetera. There are two steps in doing an accurate demographic analysis: gathering demographic data and interpreting this data.


Sometimes, this information is gathered by the questionnaire sampling method, and is done formally. On other occasions, this information is already available in a database and is made available to the speaker. Some noteworthy speakers even have “scouts” who do demographic research on an audience prior to a speaking event, and make interpretations on that audience based upon key visual cues. For example, congresspersons and senators frequently make public appearances where they use stock speeches to appeal to certain audiences with specific demographic uniqueness. In order to know what type of audience he or she will be addressing, these politicians dispatch staff aides to an event to see how many persons of color, hecklers, and supporters will be in attendance. Of course, studying demographic characteristics is, indeed, more an art form than a science. Still, it is a common practice among many professional speakers.


Consider for a moment how valuable it would be to you as a public speaker to know that your audience will be mostly female, between the ages of 25 and 40, mostly married, and Caucasian. Would you change your message to fit this demographic? Or, would you keep your message the same, no matter the audience you were addressing? Chances are you would be more inclined to talk to issues bearing upon those gender, age, and race qualities. Frankly, the smart speaker would shift his or her message to adapt to the audience. And, simply, that’s the purpose of doing demographics: to embed within your message the acceptable parameters of your audience’s range of needs.


This, of course, raises an extremely important ethical issue for the modern speaker. Given the ability to study demographic data and therefore to study your audience, does a speaker shift his or her message to play to the audience entirely? Ethically, a speaker should not shift his or her message and should remain true to his or her motives. Only you will be able to alleviate the tension between a speaker’s need to adapt to an audience and his or her need to remain true to form.


        PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
Unless your selected speech topic is a complete mystery to your audience, your listeners will already hold “attitudes, beliefs, and values” toward the ideas you will inevitably present. As a result, it is always important to know where your audience stands on the issues you plan to address ahead of time. The best way to accomplish this is to sample your audience with a quick questionnaire or survey prior to the event. This is known as the third category of audience analysis, or psychological description. When performing a description you seek to identify the audience’s attitudes, beliefs, and values. They are your keys to understanding how your audience thinks.

HANDLING STAGE FRIGHT

Fear of public speaking is a common form of anxiety. It can range from slight nervousness to paralyzing fear and panic. Many people with this fear avoid public speaking situations altogether, or they suffer through them with shaking hands and a quavering voice. But with preparation and persistence, you can overcome your fear.


        STEPS TO HANDLING STAGE FRIGHT

                 KNOW YOUR TOPIC.
The better you understand what you're talking about and the more you care about the topic  the less likely you'll make a mistake or get off track. And if you do get lost, you'll be able to recover quickly. Take some time to consider what questions the audience may ask and have your responses ready.

                GET ORGANIZED
Ahead of time, carefully plan out the information you want to present, including any props, audio or visual aids. The more organized you are, the less nervous you'll be. Use an outline on a small card to stay on track. If possible, visit the place where you'll be speaking and review available equipment before your presentation.


PRACTICE, AND THEN PRACTICE SOME MORE.
Practice your complete presentation several times. Do it for some people you're comfortable with and ask for feedback. It may also be helpful to practice with a few people with whom you're less familiar. Consider making a video of your presentation so you can watch it and see opportunities for improvement.


        CHALLENGE SPECIFIC WORRIES.
When you're afraid of something, you may overestimate the likelihood of bad things happening. List your specific worries. Then directly challenge them by identifying probable and alternative outcomes and any objective evidence that supports each worry or the likelihood that your feared outcomes will happen.


           VISUALIZE YOUR SUCCESS.
Imagine that your presentation will go well. Positive thoughts can help decrease some of your negativity about your social performance and relieve some anxiety.


           DO SOME DEEP BREATHING.
This can be very calming. Take two or more deep, slow breaths before you get up to the podium and during your speech.


    FOCUS ON YOUR MATERIAL, NOT ON YOUR
                         AUDIENCE
People mainly pay attention to new information not how it's presented. They may not notice your nervousness. If audience members do notice that you're nervous, they may root for you and want your presentation to be a success.


        DON'T FEAR A MOMENT OF SILENCE.
If you lose track of what you're saying or start to feel nervous and your mind goes blank, it may seem like you've been silent for an eternity. In reality, it's probably only a few seconds. Even if it's longer, it's likely your audience won't mind a pause to consider what you've been saying. Just take a few slow, deep breaths.


          RECOGNIZE YOUR SUCCESS.
After your speech or presentation, give yourself a pat on the back. It may not have been perfect, but chances are you're far more critical of yourself than your audience is. See if any of your specific worries actually occurred. Everyone makes mistakes. Look at any mistakes you made as an opportunity to improve your skills.

             
    GET SUPPORT.

Join a group that offers support for people who have difficulty with public speaking. One effective resource is Toastmasters, a nonprofit organization with local chapters that focuses on training people in speaking and leadership skills.

ANALYSING THE MEDIA

Media content analysis, also referred to as media analysis, is a subset of content analysis. There are many definitions of content analysis, but the one offered by Jim Macnamara, professor of Public Communication at the University of Technology Sydney in Australia, (who borrows from Lasswell, Lerner and Pool) is very insightful.

He describes content analysis as “a technique which aims at describing, with optimum objectivity, precision, and generality, what is said on a given subject in a given place at a given time''

In other words, if it is done accurately and without bias, content analysis tells you who said what about what in which way  and when and where it was said. This is incredibly valuable, as it can help you work out why certain things were said, what the likely impact will be, and how to respond. 


Media analysis focuses on one specific  area: the media landscape. This landscape consists of editorial media , online aggregation sites, news articles, investigative features, opinion columns, letters to the editor, radio broadcasts, etc. as well as social media, such as Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, and YouTube. Even though media analysis extends far beyond editorial data (and can even include advertorial media data).

There are two methods of media analysis

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